2011ch2mind - University of California -Berkeley Spring...

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1 Dr. Kaiping Peng University of California -Berkeley Spring 2011 CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY Week 3 Cultures and Minds
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2 Dr. Kaiping Peng Session 1: Cultural Evolutation A Key Question of Cultural Psychology Where all these cultural differences come from?
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3 Dr. Kaiping Peng What is evolution? Biological evolution refers to change over time in organic structures Cultural evolution refers to change over times in human societies and behaviors For example: How cultural ideas spread?
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4 Dr. Kaiping Peng The Epidemiology of Ideas Communicable ideas spread Emotional ideas spread Intuitive ideas spread
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5 Dr. Kaiping Peng The key to natural selection: Differential reproductive success because of heritable variants; everyone has ancestors, but not everyone leaves descendants
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6 Dr. Kaiping Peng Other Evolutionary Mechanisms Darwin was puzzled by the existence of certain physical features that do not contribute to survival, and may even hamper it (e.g. the peacocks tail). He realised that such features were governed by sexual selection - the creation and maintenance of features essential for attracting the opposite sex, and defending one’s status. Hamilton (1964) introduced the term ‘inclusive fitness’ - characteristics will be selected for that improve the chances of an individuals genes being passed directly, or via relatives.
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7 Dr. Kaiping Peng Sexual Selection
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8 Dr. Kaiping Peng Waist-Hip Ratio. Singh (1993) proposed that WHR served as an 'honest' marker of female age / reproductive status / health.
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9 Dr. Kaiping Peng Background. He asked participants to examine 12 randomly arranged line drawings representing four levels of WHR at three levels of body weight and rank them in order of attractiveness. In all weight categories, males and females rated the figure with the lowest WHR (0.7) as being more youthful, healthy, reproductively capable and attractive. Participants rated the figure of normal weight with the WHR of 0.7 as being the most attractive. The underweight figure with a WHR of 0.7 was rated as being the most youthful but not as attractive or reproductively capable.
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10 Dr. Kaiping Peng Stimulus Figures (Singh, 1993) Ranked as most attractive
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11 Dr. Kaiping Peng Singh & Young (1995). A new set of stimuli was devised in which all of the figures had a WHR of 0.7 but they differed only in terms of breast size and hip size. Figures with large breasts and small hips were rated as significantly more attractive than figures with small breasts and small hips. The figures with large hips were rated as being unattractive irrespective of breast size. WHR, hip and breast size also influenced a range of other preferences.
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12 Dr. Kaiping Peng Study 1 Stimuli (Singh & Young, 1995) Most attractive
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13 Dr. Kaiping Peng Study 2 Stimuli (Singh & Young, 1995).
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2011 for the course PSYCH 166A taught by Professor Peng during the Spring '11 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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2011ch2mind - University of California -Berkeley Spring...

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