2011ch4identity

2011ch4identity - An American Cultural Course University of...

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An American Cultural Course University of California - Berkeley Cultural Psychology Week 5 Culture as Identity Kaiping Peng, Ph.D Department of Psychology University of California-Berkeley
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1. What is Identity? Who am I? I am __________________ Identity is a subjective sense as well as an observable quality of personal sameness and continuity, paired with some beliefs in the sameness and continuity. Erik Erikson, 1968
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Identity Categories Personal identity a person‘s knowledge of his or her individual qualities and attributes that make him/her unique and different from others e.g., personality characteristics, unique qualities, interpersonal relationships Social identity a person‘s knowledge that he or she belongs to a social category or group (Hogg & Vaughan, 2002) e.g., being a member of a gender, a race, a ethnic, cultural, religious, or professional group Social identity includes shared norms & rules, goals & purposes; views toward ―others‖, values and world views
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Psychological importance of ethnic identity 3 Factors suggested to explain the psychological importance of minority identities (Phinney, 1996) – Cultural values, attitudes, and behaviors that distinguish ethnic groups – Subjective sense of group membership (i.e., ethnic identity) – Experiences associated with minority status (e.g., powerlessness, prejudice)
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Within Group Differences The degree to which individuals consider themselves to have an ethnic or cultural identity can vary dramatically within the same cultural group (Chung and Fischer, 2001). Differences can occur within a single family unit (Perkins, 2004).
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Social Identity Theory purports that the primary purpose of an identity is to maintain and enhance personal self- esteem (Tajfel and Turner 1986) . Two major outcomes: – depersonalization of self – ingroup vs. outgroup differentiation and competition • Ingroup favoritism. • Outgroup discrimination and stereotyping 2. Social Identity Theory Tajfel, 1982)
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Minimal Group Studies (Tajfel, 1971) What are the minimal conditions necessary for intergroup discrimination? ‗Minimal Group Paradigm‘ – No social interaction between groups – No shared goals – Participants unaware of others‘ group membership – Task: distribute money/points to other participants using reward allocation matrix
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Minimal Group Studies (Tajfel, 1971) 1. Group members alone and anonymous 2. 14-15 yr. old boys 3. Boys estimated dots on a screen 4. Boys labeled as over- or underestimators 5. Boys completed series of pay off matrices where they gave points to individual boys who would later receive the points and trade them in for fun stuff
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Findings : – Participants give more money/points to own group members. Conclusion
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2011 for the course PSYCH 166A taught by Professor Peng during the Spring '11 term at Berkeley.

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2011ch4identity - An American Cultural Course University of...

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