2011ch7method

2011ch7method - University of California -Berkeley Spring...

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1 Dr. Kaiping Peng University of California -Berkeley Spring 2011 CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY Week 8 Methodology of Cultural Psychology
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2 Dr. Kaiping Peng Lecture Outline Importance of scientific methods The process of cultural psychology research Common methods of cultural psychology Unique challenges for conducting psychological research across cultures
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3 Dr. Kaiping Peng What do you see?
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4 Dr. Kaiping Peng
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5 Dr. Kaiping Peng
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6 Dr. Kaiping Peng 1. Scientific Principles Objectivity : true to the observation Validity: measure what is supposed to measure Causality: establish causal-effect relations Generalization: explain or predict human behavior in novel situation Falsification: finding ways to disapprove the existing theories
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7 Dr. Kaiping Peng Why objectivity is important? 1). Objectivity is about procedure not the outcome. 2). Subjectivity can be studied, tested and verified. 3). Objectivity is the only way to test any theoretical and individual biases in observation; 4). Scientific objectivity is perhaps the only way to communicate across cultures.
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8 Dr. Kaiping Peng Validity of the questions Different cultures may have different validity criteria for the same operations. How do we know a person is in love with the other person?
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9 Dr. Kaiping Peng Demand Characteristics: The confounds Any method in psychology will have demand characteristics. This means that the results of an assessment will come from (at least) 2 sources: The concepts you’re trying to measure and the behaviour that is generated by the demand characteristics of the instrument you’re using. Martin Orne (1959) coined the term demand characteristics to denote the subtle, uncontrolled task- orienting cues in an experimental situation. There’s an analogy with the Heisenberg effect in atomic physics so that the observation or measurement of behavior could alter the behavior observed.
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10 Dr. Kaiping Peng Case 1: Order Effects Schuman & Presser (1981, p. 29) report numerous examples of the order effect: Consider two questions: 1) Do you think the United States should let communist newspaper reporters from other counties come to here and send back to their papers the news as they see it? 2) Do you think a communist country like Russia should let American newspaper reporters come in and send back to American the news as they see it? When question 1 was asked first, only 36% of respondents agreed with it. When it was asked second, 73% of respondents agree with it.
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11 Dr. Kaiping Peng Case 2: Logic of Conversations Inferring the meaning of a question requires to go beyond the information given. "In making these inferences, speakers and listeners rely on a set of tacit assumptions that govern the conduct of conversation in everyday life" ( Schwarz, 1994 , p. 124).
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12 Dr. Kaiping Peng Four Maxims of Conversational Logic: Grice (1975) 1) Maxim of quantity demands that contributions are as informative as required, but not more informative than
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2011 for the course PSYCH 166A taught by Professor Peng during the Spring '11 term at Berkeley.

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2011ch7method - University of California -Berkeley Spring...

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