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Lecture_14r-Breathing_1_In___Out

Lecture_14r-Breathing_1_In___Out - Outline:Control of...

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IB 132: Human Physiology Lecture 16: Control and Purposes of Breathing Widmaier, Raff & Strang Chapter 13 Professor George A. Brooks Professor Daniela Kaufer “What goes in, must come out.” Outline:Control of Breathing Purposes of Breathing Control of Breathing Central Command (Feed Forward) Peripheral Sensing (PaO 2 , PaCO 2 , pH a [H + ], pH m [H + ]) (Feedback) Central Sensing (PaCO 2 /pH [H + ]) (Feedback) Gas Transport & pH Regulation Today’s Lecture Introduction Control and regulatory concepts Definitions Pulmonary Mechanics Break Blood Gas and H + Content and Regulation Which are purposes of the breathing system in humans? a. Gas Exchange (O 2 ,CO 2 ,H 2 O,N 2 ) b. Acid-Base balance (pH) c. Communication (Speech, Music) d. Microbial Defense e. All of the above Purposes of the Breathing System Gas Exchange (O 2 ,CO 2 ,H 2 O,N 2 ) Acid-Base balance (pH) Communication (Speech, Music) Secretory Organ Microbial Defense Embolus Trap Metabolic Organ Give Two Reasons why this man is an idiot!
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Control of Breathing Set Points PaO 2 = 100 mm Hg (Torr) PaCO 2 = 40 mm Hg (Torr) pHa = 7.38 * Predominance of hypoxic ventilatory drive. Fig. 13-21 Please, Know These #’s Central Command Motor Cortex and Cingulate Gyrus Set Coarse Gain (Feedforward) Medullary Centers Integrate Higher, Local and Peripheral Signals (Feedback & Feedforward) Central Command Respiratory Center Controllers Cingulate Gyrus Respiratory Centers Inspiratory Dorsal Medulla Tractus Solitarius Expiratory Ventral Medulla Nucleus Ambiguus Nucleus Retroambiguus Cross Talk =
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Chemosensory neurons that respond to changes in blood pH and gas content are located in the aorta and in the carotid sinuses; these sensory afferent neurons alter CNS regulation of the rate of ventilation. Fig. 13-33 The Peripheral Chemoreceptors May 18, 2002 Five American Women Descend Mt. Everest South Summit Punch Line Our Breathing Capacity is robust! Pikes Peak 1911 Courtesy J.T. Reeves Schneider, Haldane and Douglas Courtesy J.T. Reeves Mabel FitzGerald 1911 Courtesy J.T. Reeves Mabel FitzGerald 1972 Age 101 Courtesy J.T. Reeves
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Chris Pizzo-American Everest Expedition-1983 End Tidal Air is Alveolar Courtesy J. West UCSD & American Physiological Society Breathing Volume Depends on Metabolic Rate Is related to: VO 2 VCO 2 pH Needs for communication How Do We Measure Breathing Volumes? Spirometry (From Latin “Spirare”To Breathe) Classical Automated Spirometry provides measures of Breath Volumes Breathing Frequency Tissot Spirometer To Measure Expired Volume And obtain Breath Samples for subsequent analysis. Breathing Valve 5 ft . Pneumo- tachometer Gas Meter Measuring Ventilatory Flow 2 ft. 2 in . 5 in . Early Example of Indirect Calorimetry Douglas Bag To Collect Expired Volumes And obtain Breath Samples for Analysis Douglas and his canvas bag The Douglas Bag
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How Do We Measure Pulmonary Gas Exchange?
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