Lecture_15r-Breathing_2_The_Pump

Lecture_15r-Breathing_2_The_Pump - Todays Lecture IB 132...

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IB 132: Human Physiology Lecture 15: Breathing Mechanics Widmaier, Raff & Strang Chapter 13 Professor George A. Brooks Professor Daniela Kaufer “Pumping Air to get you there.” Today’s Lecture Review Diffusion gradients and O 2 & CO 2 transport in The Blood Mechanics and Physics of Pulmonary Gas Exchange Awards and Acknowledgements Today’s Music: Sue ñ os by Chaskis Dyspnea In a resting healthy young person the Ventilation/Perfusion ratio (V E /Q)? a.= 0.5 b.= 1.0 c.= 5.0 d.= 10.0 e.= 100 In an exercising healthy young person the Ventilation/Perfusion ratio (V E /Q)? b.= 1.0 d.= 10.0 e.= 100 Control of Breathing, or anything What is regulated? How is it sensed? What are the control mechanisms? Control of Breathing Set Points PaO 2 = 100 mm Hg (Torr) PaCO 2 = 40 mm Hg (Torr) pHa = 7.38 Where: P is pressure a is arterial Torr is mmHg P
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Central Command Motor Cortex Sets Coarse Gain (Feedforward) Medullary Centers Integrate Higher, Local and Peripheral Signals Central Sensing (PaCO 2 /pH [H + ]) (Feedback) Peripheral Sensing (PaO 2 , PaCO 2 , pH a [H + ], pH m [H + ]) (Feedback) Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier conducts an experiment on human respiration in this drawing made by his wife, who depicted herself at the table on the far right. History of What We call “Respiration” Mabel FitzGerald 1911 Chris Pizzo-1983 Pikes Peak Mt. Everest Historical Events Dr. Thomas Hornbein Professor of Physiology and Biophysics Chair of Anesthesiology University of Washington 2009 Mt. Everest 1963 Historical Events Central Concepts Breathing is Rhythmical Inspiration ~ Expiration Gas Exchange is by Diffusion ( Δ P) Gases move from high to low pressure Breathing Frequency (f) is Regulated Breath (Tidal) Volume (V T ) is Regulated Spirometry: Measuring Breathing Volumes and Frequency Spirometry
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Content of Gases in the Blood Depends on Partial Pressure (Mainly) and Other Interactive Factors CaO 2 depends on the PaO 2 which determines the SaO 2 . Breathing Regulates the PaO 2 CaCO 2 depends on the PaCO 2 which determines the SaCO 2 . Breathing Regulates the PaCO 2 CO 2 Binding In Blood Depends On: PCO 2 pH Dissolved PO 2 Temperature [Hb] CO 2 Dissociation/Association Curve “Haldane Effect”: Oxygen Affects CO 2 Content in the Blood Mixed Venous Blood Pulmonary Artery Pulmonary Capillary Blood High in CO 2 Low in O 2 High in O 2 , Low in CO 2 CO 2 Transport In Blood Bicarbonate Ion Carbamino Combination with Hb Combination with plasma proteins Dissolved The low concentration of carbon dioxide in the alveolar air sets up the gradient that moves it from the pulmonary blood into the alveolar air. The Course/Path of CO 2 Fig. 13-30 At active cells, the production of carbon dioxide during fuel catabolism sets up the gradient to move it from the cells into the systemic blood.
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2011 for the course PSYCH 166A taught by Professor Peng during the Spring '11 term at Berkeley.

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Lecture_15r-Breathing_2_The_Pump - Todays Lecture IB 132...

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