ReaderB+HighRes+7-13 - Lecture VII. Fatty Acid Catabolism...

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Lecture VII. Fatty Acid Catabolism 1. Structure of triacylglycerols a. Glycerol b. Fatty acids 2. Uptake of dietary lipids 3. Digestion, mobilization, transport 4. 3 Stages of fatty acid transport into mitochondria 5. Breakdown (oxidation) of triacylglycerols a. Glycerol b. Fatty acids (4 steps) 6. 3 Stages of fatty acid oxidation 7. ATP yield 8. Unsaturated fatty acids 9. Regulation of fatty acid oxidation 10. Ketone bodies
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Three stages of oxidation
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Structure of lipids A small molecule generally containing fatty acids/ sterols
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Structure of fatty acids 16 CH3 C16: Palmitic acid C18:
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Dietary path for lipids in vertebrates Olive oil Sunflower vegettables Emusilfication Lipases Uptake and Resynthesis (Triacylglycerols+ cholesterol + apolipoproteins) Degradation in blood/ lymphatic system - Reesterification for storage - Oxidiation for energy
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Molecular structure of a chylomicron VLDL (low density, “bad”) - Fat - Cholesterol - Protein HDL: (high density, “good”) - Fat - Cholesterol - Protein
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Mobilisation of fats from adipose tissue Glucagon Epinephrine
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Entry of glycerol into Glycolysis
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Oxidation of fatty acids: 1) Conversion to Fatty Acid-CoA
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Oxidation of fatty acids: 2) Entry into Mitochondrium Separate pools of Acyl-CoA / CoA Cytosol Mitochondrium Acyl-carnitine / carnitine transport
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Oxidation of fatty acids: 3) β -oxidation
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Oxidation of fatty acids: 3) β -oxidation Dehydrogenation Hydratization Dehydrogenation Thiolysis Repetition:
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Palmitoyl-CoA (C16) + NAD + 2 O Acetyl-CoA + FADH 2 + NADH + H + Energy Yield: Palmitoyl-CoA Palmitoyl-CoA (C16) + FAD + NAD + + 7 H 2 O + P + FADH 2 + NADH + H + + GTP After citric acid cycle: 1) Hybernation (Bear, Bats) 2) Water storage (Camels) 3) Migration (Birds)
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Oxidation of monounsaturated fatty acids
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Regulation of fatty acid oxidation (feedback inhibition)
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Regulation of fatty acid oxidation and synthesis
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Ketone bodies (another form of energy transport) Ketone “bodies” are soluble
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Formation of ketone bodies (liver)
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The role of ketone bodies in low calorie diets Produced in the liver during carbohydrate deficiency Low blood sugar: Export to Brain Export to Muscle/ Heart for fuel
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Study Aids for Lecture VII Fatty Acid Catabolism: Chapter 17 You should know the following: • General structure of a fatty acid • General structure of a triacylglycerol • Beta-oxidation pathway (saturated fatty acids) • Enzymatic route for breakdown of triacylglycerols via lipase • Where reactions of fatty acid breakdown occur in the cell • Nature of chylomicrons • Definition of ketone body • Do problems 2, 9, 12, 13 and 19
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Lecture VIII. Amino Acid Oxidation and the Production of Urea 1. Nitrogen cycle/N 2 fixation 2. Generation of NH 3 3. Transamination 4. Fates of NH 3 5. NH 3 excretion/mammals (urea cycle) 6. Fate of dietary proteins 7. Dietary properties of amino acids 8. Overview
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Three stages of oxidation
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The total amount of nitrogen fixed annually in the biosphere exceeds 10 11 kg The Nitrogen Cycle
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Biological N 2 Fixation vs. Industrial Process Biological: N 2 + 10 H + + 8 e - + 16 ATP 2 NH 4 + + 16 ADP + 16 P i + H 2 Haber-Bosch process: N 2 + 3 H 2 2 NH
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ReaderB+HighRes+7-13 - Lecture VII. Fatty Acid Catabolism...

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