8PoliticalSystems

8PoliticalSystems - C hapter 8: Political Systems Political...

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Political Organization and the Maintenance of Order Cultures rely on their political structures, religion, and art to give societies order. Every society, whether it is organized as a small band or very large agricultural population, must have some form of political organization in order to succeed. Review of types of societies (bands, tribes, chiefdoms, states, and nation-states) shows that the larger the population, the more centralized and formal is the government. o Bands – thought to be the oldest form of political organization. usually populated with less than 100 loosely related individuals. Band societies are egalitarian . Men are responsible for 20 percent of the diet through hunting, while woman are thought to gather 80 percent of the diet. It Since all members are necessary to ensure the band's survival, there is no centralized formal government. Instead, there is an informal type of leadership to resolve conflict or advise the band members Leadership is gained through respect. Respect is gained through skill (hunting), generosity (sharing of resources), and wisdom (elders). o State societies are extremely populous and, therefore, require a formal centralized government (democracy, monarchy, dictatorship). State societies are not egalitarian at all, and there are very good reasons for that. With the domestication of plants and animals approximately 10,000 years ago, it no longer became necessary for every member in every population to provide food. With more time on their hands, populations began to specialize. Page | 1
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8PoliticalSystems - C hapter 8: Political Systems Political...

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