cultural anthropology_chapter4notes

cultural anthropology_chapter4notes - Chapter 4 Applying...

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Chapter 4: Applying Anthropology Applied/practical anthropology – the use of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to indentify, assess, and solve contemporary problems involving human behavior and social and cultural forces, conditions, and contexts Academic Anthropology Applied Anthropology Cultural anthropology Development anthropology Archaeological anthropology Cultural resource management (CRM) Biological or physical anthropology Forensic anthropology Linguistic anthropology Study of linguistic diversity in classrooms The Role of the Applied Anthropologist Early Applications Application was a central concern of early anthropology in Great Britain. This concern, however, was in the context of colonialism, raising ethical issues. During World War II, American anthropologists studied Japanese and German "culture at a distance" in an attempt to predict the behavior of the enemies of the United States. Academic and Applied Anthropology Applied anthropology did most of its growing after World War II. o In the United States, the baby boom fueled the expansion of the American educational system and thus of academic jobs. o During the 1970s, an increasing number of anthropologists joined international organizations, government, business, hospitals, and schools. This shift towards application benefited the profession. Applied Anthropology Today Modern applied anthropology usually is seen as a helping profession, devoted to assisting local people, as anthropologists speak up for the disenfranchised in the international political arena. However, ethical problems continue (e.g., in market research, ethical issues may arise as anthropologists attempt to help companies to operate more efficiently and profitably). Ethical questions include: o To whom does the researcher owe loyalty? o What problems are involved in holding firm to the truth? o What happens when applied anthropologists don't make the policies they have to implement? o How does one criticize programs in which one has participated? Page | 1
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By instilling appreciation for human diversity, anthropology combats ethnocentrism (the tendency to view one's own culture as superior and to use one's own cultural values in judging the behavior and beliefs of people raised in other societies) Proper roles for applied anthropologists include: o Identifying needs for change that local people perceive,
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cultural anthropology_chapter4notes - Chapter 4 Applying...

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