Notes3 - ECON 4337 Comparative Economic Systems Chapter 3...

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ECON 4337 Comparative Economic Systems Chapter 3
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The Theory and History of Marxism and Socialism Socialism: The Birth •Idea of socialism is older than Marx •All major religions have emphasized the importance of equality and social justice within society •Judaism: Many prophets emerged during times of social crisis and inequalities •Islam: The rise of islam is usually associated the its heavy emphasis on social justice. Abu Zerr al-Gifari was a vocal critic of injustices emerged after prophet’s dead
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The Theory and History of Marxism and Socialism Socialism: The Birth •Christianity provided a fertile ground for socialist ideology: Jesus’s sympathy toward the poor •Marx: “Nothing is easier than to give Christian ascetism a socialist tinge” •Ancient Greek philosophers also were interested in problems of inequality, social justice, building the perfect society…etc •Plato: Republic
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The Theory and History of Marxism and Socialism Utopian Socialism •Thomas Moore : Utopia •Enlightenment and French Revolution: Secularization of ideologies Saint-Simon : Central Planning-Social Engineering Charles Fourier : Creation of small communities which are self- sufficient and where everything is shared (Utopian Socialism) Robert Owen
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The Theory and History of Marxism and Socialism Utopian Socialism •Robert Owen: A businessman turned utopian socialist •There have been small communities which carried the characteristics of utopian socialism and had limited success: Amana farms in Iowa or “kibbutzes” of Israel
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The Theory and History of Marxism and Socialism Utopian Socialism •Marx called these ideas (pre-Marx socialism) Utopian •They gave no systematic explanation on how & why their systems could be established •They had no contact with a socio-economic base •According to Marx they were developed long before capitalism matured
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The Theory and History of Marxism and Socialism Utopian Socialism •Despite Marx’s criticisms, Pre-Marx socialist ideas had impacts on Capitalism •Labor movements began before Marx and they tamed “wild capitalism” of 19 th century •Not all pro-labor movements are Marxist
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The Theory and History of Marxism and Socialism Karl Marx (1818-1883)
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The Theory and History of Marxism and Socialism The Marxian Worldview: Karl Marx (1818-1883) A German journalist, theorist who spent his life in exile in England and was supported by his friend Engels Marx has created a holistic worldview
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The Theory and History of Marxism and Socialism The Marxian Worldview: Karl Marx (1818-1883) Hegelian dialectic: Georg W.F. Hegel; an Idealist German philosopher “Dialectic”: All phenomena reflect a conflict between “thesis” and “antithesis” whose opposition evolves over time to generate something brand new: “synthesis” God: Universal thesis Individual: Antithesis of God State: Synthesis
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The Theory and History of Marxism and Socialism The Marxian Worldview:
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Notes3 - ECON 4337 Comparative Economic Systems Chapter 3...

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