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APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTICS IN MEDICINE Abstract Robots in medicine deserve enhanced attention, being a field where their instrumental ids enable exacting options. The availability of oriented effectors, capable to get into the human body with no or negligible impact, is challenge, evolving while micro-mechanics aims at nanotechnology. The survey addresses sets of known achievements, singling out noteworthy autonomous in body devices, either co-robotic surgical aids, in view of recognizing shared benefits or hindrances, to explore how to conceive effective tools, tailored to answer given demands, while remaining within established technologies. Robotics for medical applications started fifteen years ago while for biological applications it is rather new (about five years old). Robotic surgery can accomplish what doctors cannot because of precision and repeatability of robotic systems. Besides, robots are able to operate in a contained space inside the human body. All these make robots especially suitable for non-invasive or minimally invasive surgery and for better outcomes of surgery. Today, robots have been demonstrated or routinely used for heart, brain, and spinal cord, throat, and knee surgeries at many hospitals in the United States (International Journal of Emerging Medical Technologies, 2005). Nanorobotics is the still largely hypothetical technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometer(10 -9 meters). Also known as nanobots or nanites , they would be constructed from nanoscale or molecular components. So far, researchers have only been able to produce some parts of such a machine, such as bearings, sensors, and synthetic molecular motors, but they hope to be able to create entire robots as small as viruses or bacteria, which could perform tasks on a tiny scale. Possible applications include micro surgery (on the level of individual cells), utility fog, manufacturing, weaponry and cleaning. This presentation provides a survey of current developments, in the spirit of focusing the trends toward the said turn.
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Introduction Robotics is a field that has many exciting potential applications. It is also a field in which expectations of the public often do not match current realities. Truly incredible capabilities are being sought and demonstrated in research laboratories around the world. However, it is very difficult to build a mechanical device (e.g., a robotic arm) that has dexterity comparable to a human’s limbs. It is even more difficult to build a computer system that can perceive its environment, reason about the environment and the task at hand, and control a robotic arm with anything remotely approaching the capabilities of a human being. History of robotics
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2011 for the course IT 101 taught by Professor Dontknow during the Spring '07 term at Northern Virginia.

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