ch.4 .docx - Enzymes Soluble protein 1 Enzymes 2 Membrane...

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Enzymes Soluble protein 1) Enzymes 2) Membrane transporters 3) Signal molecules 4) Receptors 5) Binding proteins ( cell junctions: bind one protein to another) 6) Immunoglobins 7) Regulatory proteins Proteins are selective about the molecules they bind a) Binding i) Specify of binding ii) Noncovalent bonds with other molecules iii) Occurs at biding site iv) Go to a state of equilibrium b) Ligands- ligare to tie i) Substrates ligand that bind enzymes or transporter( sub-bellow stratum layer) c) Proteins are specific about bonding d) Molecular complementary i) Induced – fit model ii) Affinity e) Binding reactions that follow the law of mass action f) When a reaction is in equilibrium the ratio of products to substrate is the same Multiple factors affect protein binding
a) Isoforms ( example: PSA ( prostate specific antigen) liquifies liquid where the sperm flows), ( troponin if there is an ingury to the heart muscle it remains elevated 10-13 hours after heart attack) (CK has three isoforms ( CKMB, CKMM, CKBB) b) Activation- some are inactive state i) Proteolytic activation( lysis) (proinsuline) ii) Cofactors c) Modulation/ modulators i) Chemical modulators (1)Competititve versus irreversible antagonists (2)Allosteric versus covalent modulators ii) Physical factors

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