StudyQuestion P3

StudyQuestion P3 - Biology 141, Spring 2011 Exam 1 Study...

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Biology 141, Spring 2011 Exam 1 Study Questions The questions on the first hour exam will be based on those given below. Questions on the exam will be in multiple choice form, but if you can answer the questions here, you will have no trouble with the exam. [Note: These questions are meant to provoke thought and study. Do not ask the instructors or the TAs to provide you with the answers. ] 1. What is the difference between an hypothesis and a scientific Theory? Between an hypothesis and a prediction? What kinds of hypotheses are useful for scientific investigations that try to explain the natural world, and which are not? Give one or more examples of hypotheses that are and are not scientifically useful. A hypothesis attempts to answer questions by putting forth a plausible explanation that has yet to be rigorously tested. A theory , on the other hand, has already undergone extensive testing by various scientists and is generally accepted as being an accurate explanation of an observation. This doesn’t mean the theory is correct; only that current testing has not yet been able to disprove it, and the evidence as it is understood, appears to support it. A hypothesis is an assumption about the nature of something. It's based on facts or experimentation.A prediction is a guess about an outcome. A good hypothesis should be testable with an experiment, based on observation and knowledge, & written as a definite statement. On the opposite, bad hypothesis would be not testable, no statement for expanation. Good: People who smoke cigarette everyday would die earlier than people don’t smoke. Bad: Cigarette is bad for health. 2. Two of the greatest unifying ideas in biology (i.e., concepts that account for and are consistent with a very large number of observations) are the Cell Theory, and the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. Most scientific Theories have two components: the pattern component and the process component. What are the two components of Cell Theory and of the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection? What are the two conditions required by the process component of evolutionary theory? The cell theory: all living things are made up of cells and all cells arise from other cells. This gives the basis for a definition for all living things. All living things are composed of cells and all are capable of reproducing themselves. The theory of Evolution by Natural Selection: Species are related to one another, and they change over time. 3. What is the hypothesis of Spontaneous Generation and how does Cell Theory challenge that hypothesis? In the Pasteur experiment two types of flasks were used. For each flask, what is the outcome predicted by Spontaneous Generation? By Cell Theory? Why did Pasteur use a swan-necked flask? Why did he boil the broth in both flasks?
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Spontaneous generation is an obsolete principle regarding the origin of life from inanimate matter, which held that this process was a commonplace and everyday occurrence, as distinguished from univocal generation, or reproduction from parent. The cell theory disproved the spontaneous generation theroy. It proved that there is no such thing
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StudyQuestion P3 - Biology 141, Spring 2011 Exam 1 Study...

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