4 DC Circuit

4 DC Circuit - ELEC101 DCcircuits1 2010/11Spring DC...

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ELEC 101 DC circuits 1 2010/11 Spring is a graphical representation of a circuit (closed connection of elements). DC Circuits Basic Definitions Circuit diagram A 1 Analog circuit example Digital circuit example
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ELEC 101 DC circuits 2 2010/11 Spring Types of circuits •A n a l o g circuits: design current and voltage into a load. •E x a m p l e s : amplifiers in cell phones, hi fi systems Digital circuits: performs logic functions x a m p l e s : computer CPU, RAM •M i x e d signals: both analog and logic together x a m p l e s : CMOS sensors for cameras, LCD drivers, RF circuits in cell phones Circuit theory can be used to model many non electronic problems Regenerative receiver
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ELEC 101 DC circuits 3 2010/11 Spring IC and PCB Circuits need to be build onto something – breadboard, printed circuit boards (PCB) •P r i n t e d circuit board–ceram ic or epoxy resin board with IC and other passive components soldered together. 8 layers of interconnects possible Circuits can be fabricated on a single silicon chip–integrated circuit (IC) •I n v e n t e d by Jack Kilby and Bob Noyce. Kilby got Nobel Prize in 2000 for inventing IC. (He also invented the portable calculator) Trend: SOC (system on chip)–more and more integration on one chip to reduce size and cost of final system
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ELEC 101 DC circuits 4 2010/11 Spring Inside the iPhone
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ELEC 101 DC circuits 5 2010/11 Spring DC circuits • Capacitor behaves as an open circuit–no DC current can pass through • Inductors behaves as short circuit–just a continuous conductor • Therefore will only consider resistors and other nonlinear elements such as transistors and diodes, and power sources in DC circuits •B u t circuit theorems discussed in this section apply to all circuits – KCL, KVL, Thevenin, Norton etc
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ELEC 101 DC circuits 6 2010/11 Spring is the electrical joint connecting the terminals of two or more elements. Node Loop Mesh is any closed path through the circuit. No node is crossed more than once, and the beginning node is also the end node . is a loop that does not contain other loop . It is the simplest loop. C D E Not a node (no electrical contact) a node Two (or more) nodes can be reduced to one node. R 2 R 1 i 4 R 3 R 6 v 1 Node a (wire, or contains no element) Branch voltage Branch current branch Physical crossing (no connection, not a node) Node b Node c Branch One branch is one two-terminals element . B 7 nodes, 9 branches (elements) E.g. Definitions
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ELEC 101 DC circuits 7 2010/11 Spring How many nodes ? How many loops ? 3 loops 2 nodes: node A and node B How many meshes ? 2meshes How many branches ? 5 branches (5 elements) A B B B B A Example Example 5 elements are in parallel A B Two-Terminals (or One-Port) Network i i + v + v F Example Example PRS 3 nodes, 3 meshes
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ELEC 101 DC circuits 8 2010/11 Spring Kirchhoff's Current Law Kirchhoff's Current Law ( KCL ): At any instant of time, the algebraic sum of the currents entering (or leaving) a node of a circuit is equal to 0.
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4 DC Circuit - ELEC101 DCcircuits1 2010/11Spring DC...

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