therealwaydillonsavedmylife

therealwaydillonsavedmylife - SECTION 3C Emission Spectrum...

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SECTION 3C Emission Spectrum Chemistry 151 Kathleen Kelly 3/10/2011
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Lab Partners: Jose, Caleb, and Tasha Eman Akam The purposes of this lab are to identify the best means of measuring emission spectrum, if it is a reliable source for identifying unknowns, and if emission spectrum follows Rydberg’s equation. The emission spectrums of multiple elements are measured using an OOI spectrometer of both gas discharge tubes and element flame tests. It is concluded that the emission spectrum of gas discharge tubes are a reliable source for measuring emission spectrum and that they follow Rydberg’s law. The results of the flame tests are unreliable and therefore unknowns cannot be identified using this method of viewing emission spectrum of elements.
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Introduction The study of atoms is extremely difficult because their size is too small to reflect light and therefore beyond the range of human vision. Alternative studies have developed to assist a further understanding of atom’s components. One of these studies is emission spectroscopy, which has played a key role in studying electrons. Emission spectroscopy is a measure of electron’s interaction with light or electromagnetic radiation. When light interacts with electrons, it excites them so their electrons absorb energy. However, Bohr’s model of the atom depicts that the energy levels of electrons must be quantized. This means that each electron is assigned a certain level of energy and each of these levels requires an exact amount of energy to be attained. When electrons are in their ground state, they arrange to form the most low stable energy. The electrons with the strongest attractive forces to the nucleus are referred to as the “core” electrons. Those in the furthest orbital from the nucleus are referred to as the “valence electrons”. The valence electrons are the most easily excitable. The energy that light applies to these electrons can be refered to as a photon, or a basic unit of light. 1 photon of energy is indirectly proportional to its wavelength and directly proportional to the speed of light (2.998 x 10 8 m/s) and Plank’s constant (6.626 x 10 -34 J/s). As explained by Boars model, electrons absorb only the photon that has exactly enough energy to move the electron to an allowed, higher energy level. However, these electrons seek to stabilize at the lowest energy level, and therefore emit as much energy as they absorb when they proceed back to ground state. This process of released energy is what produces the display of the line spectrum. Because each atom has a different electron configuration of energy levels, the line spectrum of each atom is unique. Light is know to emit a complete spectrum of visible wavelengths and each atom a unique emission line spectrum of only certain wavelengths. These emitted wavelengths correspond to the particular light photons(energy) absorbed by the electrons. High emissions of energy will correspond to lower wavelengths and vice versa.
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