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Unformatted text preview: ted Trk associated with signaling effectors. b) Retrograde signaling by NGF involves both long distance and sustained signaling by Erk kinase to the neuronal nucleus. c) Trk receptors, but not EGFRs can be retrogradely transported to the cell body. d) Retrograde signaling can be studied in vitro using neuronal chamber cultures in which NGF can be applied only to the distal axons. e) Retrogradely transported EGFR-Trk chimeric receptors in endosomes can be seen by both fluorescence and electron microscopy using EGF linked to Quantum dot nano- crystals. 11) The following is NOT true of scaffolding proteins. a) AKAPs are capable of localizing signaling effectors in close proximity of each other and to subcellular structures. b) KSR brings Raf together with Ras-GTP for Raf activation at the plasma membrane. c) AKAPs were first identified on the basis of their ability to anchor A-kinase to specific sub-cellular structures/locations. d) MP1 provides a scaffold for MEK and Erk on endosomes allowing for efficient coupling between these signaling effectors. e) AKAPs can facilitate crosstalk between signaling pathways by bringing effectors of different pathways together. 12) The following is true of crosstalk among signaling pathways. a) Ca++ can bind to and stimulate a Ca++-sensitive GEF (Guanyl-nucleotide Exchange Factor) for Ras, expressed in some neurons. b) Phospholipase C can be a convergence point for Gs and Gq signaling. c) Phorbol esters act as tumor promoters by directly stimulating the A-kinase (PKA), which then stimulates Raf kinase. d) In muscle, glycogen breakdown can be stimulated by both A-kinase acting on phosphorylase kinase and by growth factor-stimulated Erk kinase acting on phosphorylase b. e) Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is an example of convergence at the endpoint in which TH can be directly activated by Calmodulin, and phosphorylated by PKA. 13) Which of the following is indicative of how signaling networks are analyzed by computational biologists. a) Analysis of the entire Trk-signaling network. b) An...
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- Fall '08