Lecture 21 Kidney II

Lecture 21 Kidney II - Renal Physiology Lecture 2....

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Renal Physiology Barbara Rosati Dept. Physiology and Biophysics, BST 6-122 Phone: (631) 444-7350; E-mail: brosati@notes.cc.sunysb.edu Lecture 2. Integrated Kidney Function 1. Water balance 2. Sodium and ECF balance 3. Potassium balance 4. Calcium balance 5. Integrated control of volume and osmolarity 6. Acid-base balance Suggested reading: Vander’s “Human Physiology”, 12 ed. , Chap.14
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Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis During a day, we ingest about 2 liters of food and water, bringing in 6-15 g NaCl and varying amounts of other electrolytes (e.g. K + , H + , Ca 2+ , HCO 3 - ). Whatever the body does not need, has to be removed Routes of elimination of excess water and electrolytes: - Kidneys - Feces - Breathing
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Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis Its importance is linked to maintenance of ECF osmolarity 1. Cell volume Shrinkage or swelling can interfere with cell function 1. K + balance An excess of extracellular K+ causes cell depolarization. Decrease in K+ concentration cause cell hyperpolarization 1. Ca 2+ balance This ion is involved in several processes, such as exocytosis, bone formation, muscle contraction, blood clotting 1. H + , HCO 3 - Control of body pH
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Integrative Physiology of the Kidneys Fluid and electrolyte homeostasis requires the integrated function of multiple body systems 1. Kidneys Slow adaptive changes, under endocrine and neuroendocrine control 1. Cardiovascular system Neural control, rapid adaptive changes 1. Respiratory system Neural control, rapid adaptive changes 1. Behavioral adaptation e.g. thirst, salt appetite. Initiated by internal neural stimuli (rapid).
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Integrated responses to changes in blood volume and pressure
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Water Balance
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Osmolarity changes of filtrate through the nephron
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Vasopressin regulation of urine osmolarity + Vasopressin NoVasopressin
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Mechanism of Vasopressin action
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Factors affecting Vasopressin release
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The Loop of Henle is a countercurrent multiplier
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Urea and high osmolarity in renal medulla
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general considerations Average 9 g NaCl ingested/day (= ~ 154 mosm) Add 1L water to maintain osmolarity (+8% ECF) BP!! If water not ingested >>Na
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This note was uploaded on 03/28/2011 for the course BIO 328 taught by Professor Cabot during the Fall '07 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Lecture 21 Kidney II - Renal Physiology Lecture 2....

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