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Lecture 23 Reproductive Physiology II

Lecture 23 Reproductive Physiology II - Female Reproductive...

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Female Reproductive Female Reproductive Physiology Physiology Leonardo, Study Of A Womb, c. 1489
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Anatomy Of The Female Sexual Organs External Genitalia Involved in the female sexual act Possible role in promoting fertility (climax) Passive involvement in parturition
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Anatomy Of The Female Sexual Organs Internal Genitalia Active role in sperm transport Support fertilization Support embryo implantation and development Active role in parturition
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The Female Reproductive Cycle (Menstrual Cycle, 28 days) 1. Ovarian Cycle F Ovulation 1. Endometrial Cycle F Embryo development, or: F Menstruation
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Hormonal Control Of The Female Reproductive Function 1. GnRH and Gonadotropin production follows a characteristic cyclic pattern 1. LH plays an essential role in gamete production 1. The long-loop feedback action exerted by the ovaries on the hypothalamo-pituitary axis is not only inhibitory (negative) but also stimulatory (positive)
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Pituitary Gonadotropins (LH, FSH) Glycoproteic hormones Very specific action on the gonads Cyclic patterns of secretion, shaped by GnRH pulses and feedback mechanisms Stimulate production of estrogens and progesterone in the ovaries
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Extraovarian Functions Of Estrogens Development of female secondary sexual characteristics (exception: pubic hair) Skeletal growth (increased osteoblastic activity, fusion of epiphyses) Metabolic effects (subcutaneous fat accumulation, increase in total body proteins)
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Extraovarian Functions Of Progesterone Promotes uterine secretion and decrease uterine contractility Promotes secretion by tubal epithelium; Involved in milk production Thermogenic effect
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Cyclic Changes In The Female Reproductive System
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The Ovarian Cycle 1. Follicular Phase Progressive growth of ovarian follicles. Results in the outgrowth of only one of them (“dominant follicle”), which buds on the ovarian surface 1. Ovulation The dominant follicle bursts and the oocyte is expelled into the abdominal cavity 1. Luteal Phase
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