exam 1 study guide - SOC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1...

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SOC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1 Sociology= the study of human behaviors as they are affected by social interactions within groups, organizations, societies, and the planet Social interactions: people are involved 1- Take one another into account 2- Consciously and unconsciously attach meaning to the situation 3- Interpret what others are saying and doing and then respond accordingly Social facts are ideas, feelings, and ways of behaving “that possess the remarkable property of existing outside the consciousness of the individual. “ from the time we are born, the people around us seek to impose upon us ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that we had no idea in creating--- page 7 Sociological imagination= the ability to connect seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces to the most basic incidents of an individual’s life It’s important to sociology because the sociological imagination enables people to distinguish between personal troubles and public issues Troubles= personal problems and difficulties that can be explained in terms of individual characteristics such as motivation level, mood, personality, and ability Issues= matters that can be explained by factors outside an individual’s control and immediate environment Sociological imagination (sociological mindful) means that you be able to understand the terms differences and inequalities: Differences: examples cultural, racial, languages, etc Inequalities: social, economic, political, etc When difference between people or between groups benefits one person or one group-that becomes inequality Industrial revolution Sociology emerged, in part, as a reaction to the industrial revolution, an ongoing event that transformed society and human interaction in incalculable ways Period of 1750 and 1850 An ongoing process-changed the nature of work
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Shift from labor-intensive to capital-intensive Mechanized systems of production and transportation People’s movement from rural to urban-commerce-based economy Auguste Comte (1798-1857) The Positive Philosophy (1839), the French philosopher and mathematician invented the term sociology Karl Marx (1818-1883) A student of capitalism Born in Germany, political scientist spent most of his professional life in London, working and writing in collaboration with Friedrich Engels 2 of their most influential works The Communist Manifesto Das Kapital and published in 1867, 1885, and 1894 Marx’s concept of class conflict The means of production (land, tools, equipment, factories, transportation, and labor) essential to the production and distribution of goods and services Class conflict-confrontation between an exploiting class and an exploited class Bourgeoisie, who owned the means of production- a desire for profit The proletariat, who must sell their labor to the bourgeoisie Marx’s core: social consciousness More just, and fair system If the economic system were in the hands of socially conscious people motivated by an interest in the greatest benefit to society
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This note was uploaded on 03/28/2011 for the course SOC 100 taught by Professor Blah during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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exam 1 study guide - SOC EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1...

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