CHAPTER 6 notes - Case study chinas one child policy o...

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CHAPTER 6 Case study: china’s one child policy o In 1970, china’s 790 million people faced starvation The average Chinese woman gave birth to 5.8 children o The government instituted a one child policy China’s growth rate plummeted The government first used education and outreach and later instituted rewards and punishments In 1984, the policy exempted ethnic minorities and farmers o The program has been both successful and controversial The low growth rate makes it easier to deal with challenges It has produced unintended consequences: killing female infants and a black market trade in teenage girls Human population growth: 7 billion o Populations continue to rise in most countries Particularly in poverty-stricken developing nations o Although the rate of growth is slowing, we are still increasing in absolute numbers o **it would take 30 years, counting once each second, to count to a billion! The human population is still growing rapidly o It took all of human history to reach 1 billion o In 1930, 130 years later, we reached 2 billion and added the most recent billion in 12 years We add 80 million people each year (2.5 people/second) Rates of growth vary from region to region o At today’s 1.2% global growth rate, the population will double in 58 years (70/1.2=70) o If China’s rate continued at 2.8% it would have had 2 billion people in 2004 Is population growth really a problem? o Population growth results from technology, medical care, sanitation, and food
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Death rates drop, but not birth rates o Some people say growth is no problem New resources will replace depleted ones But some resources (ex: biodiversity) are irreplaceable o Quality of life will suffer with unchecked growth Less food, space, wealth per person Some people fear falling populations o Population growth is correlated with poverty, not wealth o Policymakers believe growth increases economic, political, and military strength They offer incentives for more children 67% of European nations think their birth rates are too low In non European nations, 49% feel their birth rates are too high Population growth affects the environment o The IPAT model: I= P x A x T Our total impact (I) on the environment results from the interaction of population (P), affluence (A), and technology (T) Population: individuals need space and resources and produce waste Affluence: per capita resource use Technology: increases exploitation of resources But can reduce impact
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