CHAPTER 9 notes - CHAPTER 9 Central case Managing growth in...

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CHAPTER 9 Central case: Managing growth in Portland, Oregon o In the 1970s, Oregon residents feared sprawling development would ruin their farms, forests, and open space o Oregon’s senate bill 100 (1973) required every city and county to draw up a land use plan Urban growth boundaries (UGBs) allow development in urban areas while protecting open spaces Intended to revitalize city centers, prevent suburban sprawl, and protect open lands These policies have worked as intended o Ballot measure 49 (2007) permits some small scale residential development but prevents large scale development Our urbanizing world o Urbanization= the movement of people from countryside to towns and cities The greatest change of human society since its transition to a sedentary agricultural lifestyle o Urban areas are sinks for resources and cannot function without goods and materials from other areas Undeveloped land must be left so ecosystems can function and provide services and wildlife habitat Industrialization has driven urbanization o Since 1950, urban populations have quadrupled Due to a growing human population and increased movement to cities By 2050, urban populations will grow by 94% o In developed nations, urbanizations has slowed Suburbs= the smaller communities that ring cities o Developing nations are urbanizing rapidly People are searching for jobs and urban lifestyles
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Today’s urban centers are unprecedented o Today, 20 cities are home to more than 10 million residents Tokyo, Japan has 35 million residents New York City has 18.7 million residents o But the majority of urban dwellers live in smaller cities Various factors promote urban growth o American cities grew rapidly Immigration and trade Crowding and deteriorating economic conditions drove residents to suburbs Current policies can improve city centers o Cities in southern and western states have grown People in northern and eastern states moved in search of warmer weather or more space Location is a key factor in urban growth o Climate, topography, and waterways help determine urban growth o Many well located cities are linchpins in trading networks Resources from agricultural regions enter cities Products are shipped to distant markets Urbanization in developing countries o Most fast growing cities are in developing countries Less need for farm labor due to industrialization Wars, conflict, and ecological degradation are driving people to cities o Many of these cities face overcrowding, pollution, and poverty Their economic growth does not match their population growth People have moved to suburbs
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o By the mid 1900s, the U.S and other countries had accumulated more people than jobs Unemployment caused poverty and crime Affluent city dwellers moved to cleaner, less crowded suburbs o Suburbs had advantages of space and privacy More space, better economic conditions, cheaper real estate, less crime, and better schools o
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