CHAPTER 13 notes - CHAPTER 13 Central case: charging toward...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 13 Central case: charging toward cleaner air in London o London has had bad air pollution for centuries, which has killed thousands In 1952, weather conditions trapped pollutants, killing 4,000 people; this was not the only this happened Today, Londoners breath cleaner air, but smog from traffic is a problem o The congestion-charging program charges drivers L8 ($15) per day to drive into central London during the week The money pays for bus service Congestion decreased, fewer accidents occurred, and the air became cleaner The atmosphere o Atmosphere= the thin layer of gases that surrounds Earth Provides us with oxygen Absorbs solar radiation and moderates climate Burns up incoming meteors Transports and recycles water and nutrients 78% nitrogen gas, 21% oxygen gas, 1% other gas o Human activity is changing the amounts of some gases Carbon dioxide, methane, ozone o The atmosphere has several layers The first two layers of the atmosphere o T roposphere= bottommost layer; 11 km (7 mi) high Air for breathing, weather Temperature declines with altitude o Stratosphere= 11-50 (7-31 mi) above sea level Drier and less dense, with little vertical mixing Temperature warms with altitude Contains UV radiation-blocking ozone, 17-30 km (10-19mi) above sea level Solar energy causes air to circulate o Air near Earths surface is warmer and moister than higher latitudes o Convective circulation= less dense, warmer air rises and creates vertical currents Rising air expands and cools Cool air descends and becomes denser, replacing warm air Influences both weather and climate o Weather= atmospheric conditions over short time periods and within a small geographic areas o Climate= patterns of atmospheric conditions across large geographic regions over long period of time o climate is what we expect; weather is what we get Mark Twain Thermal (temperature) inversion o Usually, tropospheric air temperature decreases as altitude increases Warm air rises, causing vertical mixing o Thermal inversion= a layer of cool air occurs beneath a layer of warmer air Inversion layer= the band of air in which temperature rises with altitude Denser, cooler air at the bottom of the layer resists mixing Pollutants are trapped at ground level Circulation systems produce climate o Convective currents contribute to climatic patterns o Hadley cells= near the equator, surface air warms, rises, and expands Releases moisture and heavy rainfall near the equator o Ferrel cells and polar cells= life air Creates precipitation at 60 degrees latitude north and south Causes air to descend at 30 degrees latitude and in the polar regions Global wind patterns o These 3 pairs of atmospheric cells account for latitudinal distribution of Earths moisture Explains the distribution of biomes o The convective cells also interact with Earths rotation to produce global...
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This note was uploaded on 03/28/2011 for the course ISB 202 taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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CHAPTER 13 notes - CHAPTER 13 Central case: charging toward...

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