exam 1 study guide - LECTURE 1 Types of Knowledge:...

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Unformatted text preview: LECTURE 1 Types of Knowledge: Epistemology= the character of knowing Philosophy of science= the character of science knowledge Science= a way of generating and testing the truth of statements Ways of Knowing: Authoritarian method- social Mystical method- spiritual Logico-rational method- procedure Scientific method-observation Individual biases make complete objectivity impossible Agreement among scientists is as close as we can come to being objective Without agreement, we have no confidence in scientific claims (and this knowledge has no value) Scientific method is the set of rules used to reach agreement These rules of science eliminate individual authority LECTURE 2 Assumptions behind paradigms within communication Communication used to be defined as a patchwork of assumptions based on different paradigms Paradigmatic maturity the field has began to develop its own identity The nature of paradigms Paradigm= point of view or worldview Paradigms and disciplinary inquiry Monism= one dominant paradigm within discipline Pluralism= multiple paradigms used within discipline Paradigmatic change and knowledge development Revolutionary model= quick and drastic change due to inconsistencies; big change in thought; new ideas push out old ideas quickly Evolutionary model= change occurs gradually overtime Contemporary ontology Mechanism= sometimes called determinism; suggests that humans make no real choices Actionalism= argues that humans make choices and chose maximizing goal choices Actional realism= kind of a combination of the 2 above; embraces actionalism but says situational circumstances affect choice; you make choices but they are shaped by context theyre in Contemporary ontological assumptions: 1-communication as a social reality 2-communication as a creative process 3-communication as a developmental process 4-communication as a complex system 5-communication as a contextual phenomenon 6-communication as a purposive activity 7-communication as an interactive reality 8-communication as an orderly process Epistemology: nature of communication inquiry Rationalism= assumes world has a logical structure and rational thought is the best way to understand it Rational impiricism= world has logical structure but you must test your thoughts with observation Mechanistic empiricism=focuses on cause and affect relations; begin with observations of relationships then develop theories Logical positivism= form of empiricism; focuses on observation of correlations Reductionism: suggests that the whole is equal to the sum of its parts Operationalism: suggests concepts are defined by the activities we use to measure them Constructivism= assumes reality is subjectively created by our meanings Constructive realism= world has some objectivity (shared prestructured meanings) The covering laws perspective Based on deductive logic as in the logical syllogism...
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This note was uploaded on 03/28/2011 for the course COM 200 taught by Professor Tamborini during the Spring '09 term at Michigan State University.

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exam 1 study guide - LECTURE 1 Types of Knowledge:...

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