Isolation of Limonene from Citrus_rev1

Isolation of Limonene from Citrus_rev1 - Isolation of...

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Isolation of (+)-Limonene from Citrus Read “Steam Distillation” in Zubrick and “Stereochemistry”, Ch. 5, in Wade. 6th ed. ______________________________________________________________________________ Limonene, the chief component of orange oil, is widely used as a fragrance and flavoring, as well as a cleaning solvent. Limonene is an example of a terpene, a class of natural products biosynthesized by the assembly of isoprene units into various structures. Many terpenes are responsible for the odors of plants like eucalyptus, pine, mint, lavender, rose, and others. Organic chemists use terpenes and other natural products as chiral starting materials for complex chemical syntheses or as inspirations for pharmaceuticals. Some natural products are attractive synthetic targets because of interesting or unusual structural features or medicinal applications. Isolation of natural products typically involves multiple extractions and chromatographic steps, but certain organic oils can be freed of contamination by subjecting them to a process known as steam distillation. In today’s lab, you will perform a steam distillation to isolate limonene from the peelings of citrus fruit. You will then use IR spectroscopy and polarimetry to analyze your isolated limonene. isoprene skeleton Steam Distillation Normally, a liquid boils when its vapor pressure is equal to the surrounding pressure. Under ordinary circumstances, surrounding pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure, which in the Phoenix area is approximately 1 atmosphere (760 mm of mercury). A solution (a homogeneous mixture of two or more miscible liquids) will boil when the combined vapor pressures of its dissolved components is equal to the surrounding pressure. The pressure of each component in a solution is related to its concentration in the mixture, and so the boiling point of a solution, or homogeneous mixture, is normally between the boiling points of the individual components. On the other hand, a heterogeneous mixture will also boil when the combined vapor
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Isolation of Limonene from Citrus_rev1 - Isolation of...

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