The+Common+School+Era[1] - The Common School Era Era...

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Unformatted text preview: The Common School Era Era Historical Context Historical Westward Expansion Immigration Urbanization/Industrialization Second Great Awakening’ First state laws First 1834, Pennsylvania • “An Act to Establish a General System of Education by Common Schools” Local district participation optional 1/4 – 1/5 of 987 districts not participating, 1848 State constitution, 1874 1837, Mass. State Board of Education • Horace Mann, Commissioner & advocate Meaning of Common Schooling Meaning Common schoolhouse Common curriculum Common funding • No class or gender divisions • Focus on citizenship, common values • Schools funded through taxation Ideology of Common Schooling Ideology Citizenship education Moral (pan­Protestant) education Development of human capital Supporters of Common Schools Supporters Social reformers Business leaders “Workingmen” organizations Whigs Opponents of Common Schools Opponents Catholics (some) German speaking Protestants Democrats Expansion of Common Schools Expansion Massachusetts model copied through Midwest and West A few cities in the South 1865­ 50% of kids attend Education for ‘Others’ Education Mission schools • 3 R’s plus conversion to Christianity Mexican­Americans (after 1848) • Substandard vocational schooling Segregated schools in North Teacher Education Teacher Troy Female Seminary­ 1821 Normal Schools • • • Common schools required trained teachers Teachers should be women Emphasis on moral character ...
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