URTI and AntibioticsRunning Head: URTI and AntibioticsOverprescribing Antibiotics in Patient with URTI[Name of Student][Name of University]
URTI and AntibioticsLiterature ReviewIntroductionUpper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) occur either in larynx or pharynx, present in respiratory system (Yoon et al 2017). Moreover, it is distinguished according the affected area with inflammation, the affects can be laryngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, common cold, Otis media or influenza (Centre for Clinical Practice, 2008). However, Otitis media is not widelyconsidered to be URTI, but is a consequence or complication of it, therefore it is identified as URTI (Chonmaitree et al 2008). While many of the URTI infections are viral as they can spread, which includes viruses such as: coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza and adenovirus (Cotton et al 2008). Development of bacteria such as; flu or cold occur when the virus has spread. Therefore, characterization of pathogenic bacteria still needs to be classified in terms of its significance (McIntyre et al 2017). Nevertheless, it is difficult to distinguish pathogenic bacteria through positive nasopharyngeal bacterial culture as many healthy individuals also carry it (Ouédraogo et al 2014). Most of the URTI infections are self-limiting, therefore does not require the patient to visit physicians or intake of antibiotics (Peroš-Golubičić 2015). Moreover, many of the studies has estimated that about 70% of the children dieper year in Africa and South Asia because of URTI (Symekher et al., 2009). Although, many of the practitioner are given education on antibiotic resistance, but still it is observed that prescribing rates of antibiotics still remain high in general practice (Fletcher-Lartey et al., 2016). Moreover, in a study conducted by WHO, which estimated that still 60% of pateints with URTI are given antibiotics inappropriately (Kunda et al., 2015). However, when antibiotics are used
URTI and Antibioticsinappropriately then it leads to emergency of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which is becominga major health concern worldwide.DiscussionThe aspects which are documented relative to antibiotic prescription by physicians for URTI includes; fear of complications, cough, fever > 38°C, inflamed eardrum, throat irritation, patients financial gains and care givers pressure (Enezi et al., 2011). However, the guidelines given by CDC (Centre of Disease Control) suggests that patients with non-specific URTI, shouldnot be given antibiotics because it neither discontinues complications nor improves illness resolution (CDC 2017). Moreover, it was highlighted by one of the studies that there are only 13% of physicians who considers laboratory tests as a priority, then prescribe antibiotics, while 87% thought the laboratory tests were unnecessary (Mohan et al., 2004). However, if the patient is not diagnosed properly or misdiagnosed, then it leads to prescriptions having incorrect antibiotics then later increases the need for AMR in most parts of the world (Haque 2017).