Chapter 3 - 3 Click to edit Master title style Earthquakes...

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Click to edit Master title style 3 Earthquakes and Their Causes Hyndman/Hyndman Natural Hazards and Disasters , 3 rd Edition
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Deadly Effects with Poor Quality Construction 4:53 pm, January 12, 2010: Port-au- Prince, capital of Haiti , struck by magnitude 7.0 earthquake, killing as many as 250,000 people On Enriquillo-Plantain Garden left-lateral strike-slip fault (last large quake in 1860), of plate boundary between Caribbean and North American plate
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Deadly Effects with Poor Quality Construction Corruption, poverty and lack of construction standards led to collapse of thousands of buildings, including apartments, schools, hospitals, factories, hotels, the central cathedral, and local U.N. headquarters Relief efforts and aid were sparse and slow, hampered by aftershocks and lack of resources, such as small, damaged airport Hundreds of thousands of survivors remained in tent camps weeks later Many left Port-au-Prince for countryside, only to return later, forced to look for income in the city
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Faults and Earthquakes Faults : fractures in crust along which rocks on one side move past rocks on the other side Measured according to amount of displacement: over several million years, west side of San Andreas fault has moved about 450 km to north Some faults produce earthquakes when they shift, others produce almost none Most faults along plate boundaries Few faults in stable interior regions of continents
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Faults and Earthquakes Normal faults Crustal extension Rocks above steeply-inclined fault surface slip down and over rocks beneath fault surface Reverse faults Crustal compression Rocks above steeply-inclined fault surface slip up and over rocks beneath fault surface Thrust faults are same as reverse faults, but have more gently-inclined surface
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Fig. 3-1, p. 37
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Faults and Earthquakes Strike-slip faults Vertical surface Rocks on one side of fault slip laterally past rocks on other side of fault Where rocks on far side of fault slip to right: right-lateral strike-slip fault Where rocks on far side of fault slip to left: left-lateral strike-slip fault
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Fig. 3-2, p. 38
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Stepped Art Reverse/thrust fault Strike-slip fault Normal fault Fig. 3-2, p. 38
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Faults and Earthquakes Orientation of rock layers and faults are described by their strike and dip Strike : compass direction of horizontal line on surface Dip : inclination angle (perpendicular to strike direction) of surface, measured down from horizontal
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Fig. 3-3, p. 38
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Causes of Earthquakes Commission appointed after great San Francisco earthquake of 1906 to find cause of earthquakes, headed by Andrew Lawson Lawson and students had mapped San Andreas fault (SAF), but had no idea it caused earthquakes After 1906 earthquake, they found that west side of SAF had shifted north by as much as 7 m
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Causes of Earthquakes Commission theorized that the two sides of SAF had been stuck for years, accumulating energy, while surrounding
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Chapter 3 - 3 Click to edit Master title style Earthquakes...

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