PSY 260 March 29 2011

PSY 260 March 29 2011 - Semantic Organization Guest...

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Semantic Organization Guest Lecturer: Prof. Nancy Franklin
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LTM (from box models to networks) How is knowledge stored in long-term memory? How is long-term memory organized? Meaningful associations So rather than thinking of memory stages as boxes or locations , think of them as different states of a network .
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Network models Nodes - abstract unit that abstractly represents elements such as features, letters, and words Links, or connections between nodes Activation - excitation or inhibition that spreads from one node to another
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Network models Nodes - abstract unit that abstractly represents elements such as features, letters, and words Links, or connections between nodes Activation - excitation or inhibition that spreads from one node to another (So LTM is the whole network; the activated part is analogous to STM or working memory…)
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LTM How is knowledge stored in long-term memory? How is long-term memory organized? Meaningful associations How can we study this? Word association task (“fruit” - ________) Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) (inability to access word) Sentence verification task (“Is a robin a bird?” - yes) Category verification task (“bird-tree” - no) Lexical decision task (“doctor” - yes/ “shup” - no) (For these last three, we use response time, not accuracy.)
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Approaches to the organization of knowledge Hierarchical Semantic Network Model Spreading Activation Feature Comparison Model (not a network)
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The Hierarchical Network Model Assumes category info is stored directly by means of associations. It takes time to “move from” one level to another.
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The Hierarchical Network Model Predicts RTs in statement verification Cognitive economy: info is stored at most general level
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SENTENCE VERIFICATION (Some typical reaction time data) CATEGORY SENTENCES PROPERTY SENTENCES A canary is an animal (1.20 sec) A canary eats (1.46) A canary is a bird (1.15) A canary can fly (1.39) A canary is a canary (1.00) A canary is yellow (1.31) ANIMAL MAMMAL BIRD FISH DOG BAT COLLIE ROBIN CANARY CHICKEN SALMON Nodes can fly yellow eats Cognitive economy
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BUT SOME PREDICTIONS OF THIS MODEL DON’T WORK! “A collie is an animal” is faster than “A collie is a mammal” (Violates the hierarchical assumption of this model!) “A robin is a bird” is faster than “A chicken is a bird” (Typicality effects are not predicted by this model!) ANIMAL MAMMAL BIRD FISH DOG BAT COLLIE ROBIN CANARY CHICKEN SALMON Nodes can fly yellow eats Cognitive economy
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This note was uploaded on 03/28/2011 for the course PSY 260 taught by Professor Brennan during the Spring '11 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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PSY 260 March 29 2011 - Semantic Organization Guest...

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