imagery - Mental imagery There are multiple ways to...

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Unformatted text preview: Mental imagery There are multiple ways to remember (encode and retrieve) How do you memorize a new phone number? Rehearsal Number-based mnemonics Spatial imagery – Keypad – “Follow the bouncing ball” Questions about mental imagery Do mental images really exist? What is the evidence? What is a mental image? Pictures are more memorable than words Vividness effects of concrete words Selective interference Mental rotation & the mental image controversy How are mental images like perceptual images? What is the neurological basis for mental images? How are mental images un like perceptual images? How many windows were there in the bedroom you had when you were 10? Although it subjectively feels as if we use a mental image to answer this question, we can’t just take a subjective feeling as evidence! Neisser ’s definition of mental imagery “A subject is imaging whenever he employs some of the same cognitive processes that he would use in perceiving, but when the stimulus input that would normally give rise to such perception is absent.” Pictures are more memorable than words In Shepard’s (1967) expt, people viewing 612 pictures got them all right (“old” vs. “new”) 2 hours later, and 87% correct 1 week later. People viewing 612 words got only 88% right 2 hours later. In Standing’s (1973) expt, “vivid” (odd) pictures were remembered better than ordinary pictures (and both were remembered better than words). Vividness effects of concrete words Easily imagined words are remembered better than abstract words. CONCRETE ABSTRACT Chair Truth Dog Beauty House Justice Paivio, Smythe, & Yuille, 1968 Concrete words are more memorable than abstract words Juggler-dress Letter-effort Duty-hotel Quality-necessity This is true even when you don’t ask subjects to form images! Paivio ’s Dual Coding Theory Two independent memory codes (verbal, visual) Imagery is an effective learning strategy Works best when two words can be related (in an interacting image) Selective interference occurs… when people engage in two tasks that use the same resources at the same time (Brooks, 1968) Task: Imagine an F. For each corner, decide whether it coincides with the corners of a box enclosing the letter (“Y”) or as a point in between (“N”) Response modes: (3 conditions) • Verbal (say yes or no) no interference • Tapping (left hand = yes, right = no) • Spatial (e.g., point to “Y” or “N”, above) was slowest (led to the most interference) Verbal < Tapping < Spatial Selective interference occurs… when people engage in two tasks that use the same resources at the same time (Brooks, 1968) Task: Respond yes or “Y” if a word is a noun, no or “N” otherwise....
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This note was uploaded on 03/28/2011 for the course PSY 260 taught by Professor Brennan during the Spring '11 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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imagery - Mental imagery There are multiple ways to...

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