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Unformatted text preview: Quiz #2
Take 5 minutes to free-write on the readings due for class today. You may right about something that struck you, you liked, annoyed you, made you think, or even just something SPECIFIC you remember from the reading. Viewers Make Meaning
28 February 2011 Be sure to write in a way that makes it ABSOLUTELY UNAMBIGUOUS that you have prepared for class by reading and thinking about the chapter. Interpellation, Louis Althusser
How do images interpellate viewers? We become the subject we are addressed as. Ideologies “hail” subjects and enlist us as their authors. For images to work this way, we must understand ourselves as part of a social group that shares codes and conventions that give images meaning.
• • • • •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owGykVbfgUE •http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uLTIowBF0kE We already know images have different levels of meaning
Denotative: literal, descriptive meaning Connotative: implies something culturally specific. The connotative meaning relies on one’s experience, history, what an image brings to you personally. Sometimes connotations appear true and natural according to cultural assumptions. It is our job as critical readers not to simply point out dominant meanings, but to show how these meanings are made. In the LLBean catalog, there are colors for men and colors for women. Do we know which is which? “Ideologies are connotations parading as denotations.” (Sturken and Cartwright) Ideology is the process by which certain cultural values are made to seem natural. Images can persuade us of what we should think, feel, value; how we should dress, how our bodies should appear, what we should eat. Contemporary advertisers use images to reinforce ideological constructions such as romantic love, heterosexuality, nationalism, even good and evil. What effects the producer’s intended meaning? Aesthetics & Taste Personal experiences/knowledge/associations; Context ; Juxtaposition Habitus, Pierre Bourdieu
A set of dispositions and preferences we share as social subjects that are related to our class position, education, and social standing High Brow? Low Brow? Institutional Critique
What is the role of different institutions (museums/art, hospitals/medicine, prisons/law, schools/education) in producing certain types of knowledge and ways of being? Power is enacted through the structure of institutions often without explicit force but through the cultivation of taste and routines. • Based in classist hierarchies • Trickle down as well as trickle up movement Dada
Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Karl Marx
Whoever controls the means of production, controls ideology. Who controls the media? What is to their advantage that people value or believe? False Consciousness: Marx believed oppressed people cannot help but unconsciously buy into the dominant ideology. We participate in our oppression. Louis Althusser, 1960s
Louis Althusser, a French Marxist theorist, thought that ideology was not solely determined by the dominant, ruling class, but instead that individuals are in relationship with their experience of reality; our ideology helps us figure out who we are in relationship to our world: “Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence.” Antonio Gramsci, 1920s/30s & Hegemony (common sense)
Hegemony replaces the idea that the ruling class creates a dominant ideology. Instead we have the idea that there is a “dominant ideology” that poses as what is natural and right. But there are also other opposing forces and the dominant ideology is always in flux. Hegemony is arrived at by negotiation among all classes of people who struggle with and against one another. Because of this constant negotiation of power, dominant ideologies must constantly be reaffirmed You can create images that reinforce the dominant ideologies or… …challenge them Hegemony & Counterhegemony
Barbara Kruger Encoding/Decoding
We can agree rather passively with the dominant message (Dominant-hegemonic reading) We can negotiate with it by accepting its encoded meaning but coloring that with our own experience, memories, feelings (Negotiated Reading) OR, we can take an oppositional approach and reject it altogether (Oppositional Reading) But what does it matter if we read a TV show in an oppositional way?
Whose reading counts? Can we turn off the TV or refuse to buy the product? Or we can make a new use for the “artifacts of our culture”? this is called appropriation Cultural appropriation is “the process of borrowing and changing the meaning of cultural products, slogans, images, etc.” (Sturken and Cartwright) Oppositional Readings
Transcoding: take back, redefine, revalue words (ex. Crip, Queer) Bricolage: adapt commodities in ways that they are not intended Textual Poaching: http://elisakreisinger.wordpress.com/video/ Counter-Bricolage
Counter-bricolage: (Re-)Appropriation by mainstream, loses the political meaning produced when subcultures appropriate from the mainstream. ...
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- Spring '11