10_存储器_349607091

10_存储å�...

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1 Memory z Introduction z Read-Only Memories (ROM) 只读存储器 z Random-Access Memories (RAM) 随机存取 存储器 (10.4.1~10.4.4) z Design of a Simple Memory Controller (10.4.5)
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2 Introduction z Memory Application z Memory terminology z Memory operation z CPU-Memory connections
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3 A Computer System Main Memory (Semiconductor) Control Arithmetic Auxiliary Mass Storage (Magnetic, Optical) Central Processor Unit (CPU)
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4 Introduction z Memory Application z Memory terminology z Memory operation z CPU-Memory connections
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5 Memory Terminology (1) z Memory Cell z A device/electrical circuit used to store a single bit z Flip-flop, Charged capacitor, single spot z Memory Word z A group of bits/cells representing instructions or data of some type z 8 to 64 bits in modern computers z Byte z A special term used for a group of eight bits z 1 to 8 bytes in modern computers
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6 Memory Terminology (2) z Capacity z A way of specifying how many bits can be stored in a particular memory device or complete memory system z 4096 20-bit words =81920 bits z 2K × 8: 2 × 1024 = 2048 words, 2048 × 8 =16384 bits z Density z Another term for capacity z Address z A number that identifies the location of a word in memory
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7 Memory Terminology (3) Word 7 111 Word 6 110 Word 5 101 Word 4 100 Word 3 011 Word 2 010 Word 1 001 Word 0 000 Addresses
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8 Introduction z Memory Application z Memory terminology z Memory operation z CPU-Memory connections
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9 Memory Operation (1) z Write/Store Operation z Whereby a new word is placed into particular memory location (address) z Read/Fetch Operation z Whereby the binary word stored in a specific memory location is sensed and then transferred to another device z Access Time z A measuring of a memory device’s operating speed z The mount of time required to perform a read operation
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10 Memory Operation (2) z Procedure z Select the address in memory that is being accessed for a read or write operation z Select either a read or a write operation to be performed z Supply the input data to be stored in memory during a write operation z Hold the output data coming from memory during a read operation z Enable/Disable the memory so that it will/will not respond to the address inputs and read/write command
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11 Memory Operation (3) Word 31 11111 Word 30 11110 Word i : Word 4 00100 Word 3 00011 Word 2 00010 Word 1 00001 Word 0 00000 Addresses A 4 A 3 A 2 A 1 A 0 O 3 O 2 O 1 O 0 I 3 I 2 I 1 I 0 32 × 4 Memory ME Memory enable Read/write command Address inputs Data inputs Data outputs MSB / RW LSB
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12 Memory Operation (4) 0111 11111 1101 11110 : : 0001 00100 1000 00011 1111 00010 1001 00001 0110 00000 Addresses A 4 A 3 A 2 A 1 A 0 O 3 O 2 O 1 O 0 I 3 I 2 I 1 I 0 32 × 4 Memory ME Memory enable Read/write command Address inputs Data inputs Data outputs MSB / RW LSB Look-up table
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13 Introduction z Memory Application z Memory terminology z Memory operation z CPU-Memory connections
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14 CPU-Memory Connections (1) CPU Memory IC Memory IC Address Bus Data Bus Control Bus
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15 CPU-Memory Connections (2) z Address Bus z Unidirectional bus carrying the binary address outputs from the CPU to the memory ICs to select one memory location z Data Bus z
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10_存储å�...

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