Optional_Ch._7_Key - 1 18. a. A discrete bundle of light...

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1 18. a. A discrete bundle of light energy. b. A number describing a discrete energy state of an electron. c. The lowest energy state of the electron(s) in an atom or ion. d. An allowed energy state that is higher in energy than the ground state. There is a higher probability of finding the 4s electron very close to the nucleus than the 3d electron. Across a period, the positive charge fiom the nucleus increases as protons are added. The number of electrons also increase, but these outer electrons do not completely shield the increasing nuclear charge fiom each other. The general result is that the outer electrons are more strongly bound as one goes across a period which results in larger ionization energies (and smaller size). Aluminum is out of order because the electrons in the filled 3s orbital shield some of the nuclear charge fiom the 3p electron. Hence, the 3p electron is less tightly bound than a 3s electron resulting in a lower ionization energy for alumhum as compared to magnesium. The ionization energy of sulfur is lower than phosphorus because of the extra electron-electron repulsions in the doubly occupied sulfur 3p orbital. These added repulsions, which are not present in phosphorus, make it slightly easier to remove an electron fiom sulfur as compared to phosphorus: 44. Referencing figure 7.2 of the text, 2.12 x 10-lo m electromagnetic radiation is X-rays. I
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY Chem150 taught by Professor A during the Winter '06 term at North Shore Community College.

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Optional_Ch._7_Key - 1 18. a. A discrete bundle of light...

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