LEC 1 -15 nature nurture 09 (NXPowerLite)

LEC 1 -15 nature nurture 09 (NXPowerLite) - Topics I will...

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Topics I will cover: 1. Nature and nurture in the development of behavior 2. Selfishness and altruism, as shaped by evolution 3. Introduction to the nervous system 4. How nerve cells work 5. The brain and visual experience 6. Aspects of learning and memory ------------------------------------------------ Topics Prof. Zaidel will cover: 2. Neuropsychology of memory 3. Neuropsychology of language 4. Emotions in the brain 5. Hemispheric specialization
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People differ Intelligent --- Stupid Neurotic --- Normal Crazy --- Sane Introverted --- Extroverted Mathematically talented --- Mathematically challenged Conscientious & --- Unreliable & dependable flakey
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Nature and nurture in the development of behavior A. Broad biological principles of development 1. Basic principles 2. Pleiotropism 3. Control of gene read-out B. Application to the nervous system C. Sources of variation in psychological traits 1. IQ and other traits 2. The meaning of genetically determined differences 3. Practical consequences
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gene x gene y gene z Most genes code for a specific protein. A given gene can have multiple alleles. Maternal chromosome Paternal chromosome mRNA x Important kinds of proteins: enzymes receptors channels carriers gene regulatory proteins (transcription factors) structural proteins Other genes: Non-translated RNAs Regulatory sequences Proteins=strings of amino acids (AAs). Each 3 letter word written with an alphabet of 4 letters (“nucleotides” or “bases”) on DNA specifies which of 21 AAs should be added next to growing AA string. DNA strands Transcription Translation protein x etc A,C,T, or G read strand unread strand
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Sequence of enzymatic reactions Final product 10 253 13 98 33 99 102 65 A 72 99 211 67 41 12 10 32 B etc. Pleitropic effect of genes: -Every gene affects many traits. -Every trait is the product of many genes. (eg. red eyes in flies)
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Calcium ion that has entered cell NMDA receptor Release of chemical transmitter that binds to NMDA receptor SPINAL CORD LOCOMOTOR CIRCUITS LEARNING CIRCUITS OF HIPPOCAMPUS AND CORTEX Calcium entry through NMDA receptor channels plays crucial role in generating rhythmic locomotor movements and also breathing rhythm Calcium entry through NMDA receptor channels causes synaptic strengthening and weakening that underlies learning and development
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is always pleiotropic . ie. it always produces
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LEC 1 -15 nature nurture 09 (NXPowerLite) - Topics I will...

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