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Unformatted text preview: DR. JIM BLOXTONS OPTIONAL CHEM 1021 NOMENCLATURE AND MOLECULAR, FULL IONIC AND NET IONIC EQUATIONS BACKGROUND: Scientists use chemical symbols to represent the names of elements in chemical equations and in chemical formulas. The names and formulas for elements that you will need for Chem 1023 are given below: Group IA Group IIA Transition Elements Transition Elements H hydrogen Mg magnesium Fe iron Ag silver Li lithium Ca calcium Co cobalt Au gold Na sodium Sr stronium Pt platinum Zn zinc K potassium Ba barium Cu copper Cd cadmium Ra radium Mn manganese Hg mercury Cr chromium Mo molybdenium Group IIIA Group IVA Group VA Group VIA Al aluminum C carbon N nitrogen O oxygen Sn tin P phosphorus S sulfur Pb lead Se selenium Group VIIA Group VIIIA F fluorine Rn Radon Cl chlorine Br bromine I iodine Most of these elements are represented as monatomic or one atom when they are written in chemical equations. An example is sodium which is written as Na in a chemical equation. The absence of a subscript after an elements symbol indicates that there is one atom of that element. Elements such as hydrogen, mercury, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine are more stable as diatomic molecules or two atom molecules. These elements are represented as follows in chemicals equations: H 2 , Hg 2 , N 2 , O 2 , F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 and I 2 . The presence of the subscript two after an elements symbol indicates that there are two atoms of that element. Ions play a very important role in maintaining life itself. An ion has either a positive or negative charge and enables aqueous solutions to carry electrical charge. A cation is an ion with a positive charge. An anion is an ion with a negative charge. Ions are involved in many cellular process in our bodies. Some of the important ions in biological systems include K + , Na + , Li + , Mg 2+ , Fe 3+ , Cl- , I- , HCO 3- , H 2 PO 4- , and HPO 4 2- . The names and formulas of some of the ions that you will need to know for this course are given below. Group IA Cations Group IIA Cations Group IIIA Cation H + hydrogen ion Mg 2+ magnesium ion Al 3+ aluminum ion Li + lithium ion Ca 2+ calcium ion 1 Na + sodium ion Ba 2+ barium ion K + potassium ion Transition Metal Cations Transition Metal Cations Group IVA Cations Ag + silver ion Fe 2+ iron(II) ion or Sn 2+ tin(II) ion or Zn 2+ zinc ion ferrous ion stannous ion Cu + copper(I) ion or Fe 3+ iron(III) ion or Sn 4+ tin(IV) ion or cuprous ion ferric ion stannic ion Cu 2+ copper(II) ion or Hg 2 2+ mercury(I) ion or Pb 2+ lead(II) ion cupric ion mercurous ion Pb 4+ lead(IV) ion Hg 2+ mercury(II) ion or Polyatomic Cations mercuric ion NH 4 + ammonium ion H 3 O + hydronium ion The elements group number, Roman numeral for groups IA, IIA, and IIA corresponds to the charge for the cations of these elements. Thus Group IA elements such as H, Li, Na and K will lose one electron to form a cation with a 1+ charge. The number of valence electrons that an element has corresponds to the elements group number for the A group or representative...
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