Dr._Jim_Bloxton_s_Optional_Chem_1021_Solutions_Preparation_And_Properties_Handout

Dr._Jim_Bloxton_s_Optional_Chem_1021_Solutions_Preparation_And_Properties_Handout

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SOLUTIONS PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES KEY TERMS (1) : Physiological saline solution: 0.9% (w/w) NaCl solution or 0.89% (w/v) NaCl solution. This solution is isotonic with the fluid inside a red blood cell. w/w : Abbreviation for weight by weight . A unit of concentration. w/v : Abbreviation for weight by volume . A unit of concentration. Isotonic or iso osmotic: Two solutions that have the same osmolarity. Hypotonic or hypo osmotic: When a solution has a lower osmolarity than the solution it is compared to. Hypertonic or hyper osmotic: When a solution has a higher osmolarity than the solution it is compared to. Osmolarity: The molar concentration of all solute particles active in osmosis or dialysis. Abbreviation is Osm and units are mol/L. A unit of concentration. Osmotic pressure: The exact back pressure that is needed to prevent osmosis. The symbol for osmotic pressure is II . A unit of concentration. Osmosis: The net flow of water through an osmotic membrane from a solution with a lower concentration of solute into a solution with a higher concentration of solute. Osmotic membrane: A membrane that permits the flow of water molecules through the membrane. Dialysis: A process where water molecules along with ordinary size molecule and ions can move across a membrane . Dialyzing membrane: A semipermeable that allows both solvent and ordinary size molecules and ions to flow through the membrane . Semipermeable membrane: A membrane that will only allow ions and molecules of a certain size to pass through . Acidosis: A condition that results when the pH of the blood is lower than normal. Alkalosis: A condition that results when the pH of the blood is higher than normal. Crenation: When cells lose liquid volume through dialysis and the cell shrivels and shrinks. 1
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Hemolysis: When cells gain liquid volume through dialysis and the cell swells and ruptures. Solute: The solid or gas that is dissolved in a solvent. Solvent: The liquid that the solute is dissolved in. Aqueous: A solution that has water as the solvent. Abbreviation is (aq). Solution: A combination of solute and solvent. Molarity: A unit of concentration and is defined as follows: Molarity is the number of moles of solute that is dissolved in one liter of solution. moles of solute Molarity = ------------------------------- volume of solution in liters The abbreviation for Molarity is M and the units are mol/L. BACKGROUND: (1) A 0.9% (w/w) NaCl solution , often called physiological saline solution , is very important in medicine. This physiological saline solution is isotonic in comparison with the fluid inside a red blood cell . When large amounts of any solution are added to the bloodstream those solutions must be isotonic with physiological saline solution. The designation w/w means that weight by weight . 0.9% w/w means that there is 0.9 grams of NaCl in every 100 grams of 0.9% NaCl solution. Water comprises 99.1 grams of the rest of the 100 grams of 0.9% NaCl solution. Osmolarity (Osm)
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 1021 taught by Professor Jimbloxton during the Fall '09 term at Temple.

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Dr._Jim_Bloxton_s_Optional_Chem_1021_Solutions_Preparation_And_Properties_Handout

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