Interessentanalyse, artikkel av Jan Terje Karlsen

Interessentanalyse, artikkel av Jan Terje Karlsen -...

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Engineering Management Journal Vol. 14 No. 4 December 2002 19 PROJECT STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT Jan Terje Karlsen Norwegian School of Management BI Abstract Today almost every project takes place in a context where stakeholders play a major role in the accomplishment of the tasks. Often the project is sensitive to actions and decisions taken by the stakeholder. Project stakeholders can include clients, end users, contractors, consultants, labor unions, line organization, public authorities, financial institutions, insurance companies, controlling organizations, media, third parties, and competitors. A survey was conducted among project managers in Norway to collect their views on stakeholder management. First, research results indicate that clients and end users are the most important project stakeholders. Second, collected data show clients, end users, contractors/suppliers, line organization, and public authorities are equal when it comes to causing problems and uncertainty for the project. Third, the findings indicate that more efforts should be made to provide new insights into project stakeholder management. Furthermore, the article describes a formal and systematic project stakeholder management process. This process includes six steps: initial planning, identification, analysis, communication, action, and follow-up. The results from this article can be of use for a project manager in several ways. First of all, we argue that more attention should be paid to the stakeholders. Second, in managing the stakeholders the project manager can follow the process presented here. Third, the survey results can give the project manager an idea of which stakeholders to focus on in order to understand them better. Introduction Project management is a science and profession that is not very old. During the past 40 years, project management has undergone rapid and sometimes unpredictable changes while trying to find suitable answers and countermeasures to the assigned challenges; however, those responses usually have had a distinct internal and quantitative focus on development of tools and techniques to control costs, time, and quality (Gilbert, 1983). There are many examples of project management planning, scheduling, budgeting and control systems, and tools, which have been generated to cope with a large amount of data associated with projects. This approach has brought us some very significant successes, both in theory and practice, but it also has some weaknesses. The purpose of this article is to create a more extensive picture of what is included in project management. Past research has shown that most projects are sensitive to changes in the environment (Karlsen, 1998). On the other hand, many projects experience that clients, end users, and public authorities make tougher demands on project execution. Hence, it is a mistake for project management to ignore the stakeholders or attempt to impose a rigid detailed control. These are challenges and demands that the project manager cannot overlook, but has
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Interessentanalyse, artikkel av Jan Terje Karlsen -...

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