Week 1 - Introduction to Quality Engineering

Week 1 - Introduction to Quality Engineering - Engr 9397...

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Unformatted text preview: Engr 9397 Advanced Modeling and Quality Management •  Winter Term, 2011 •  Instructor: Susan Hunt ([email protected]) •  Time slot: Mondays 7:00 – 9:30 pm ENGR 9397 – Advanced Modeling and Quality Management •  January 10th, 2011 –  IntroducOons –  Overview of Syllabus –  History of quality –  IntroducOon to Quality Management Concepts and overview of tools used in this course History of Quality •  Because of industrializaOon and mass ­produced units, craYsmen were no longer responsible for the quality of an individual product, so new methods were needed to assure the uniformity of parts •  1920 ­1940s – StaOsOcs and sampling first used to esOmate and control variability in manufactured products •  1940s – WWII helped to evolve the science of reliability as there was concern about the dependability of electronic parts •  1960s – Methods developed during WWII gave rise to the commercial products such as consumer electronics and household appliances •  1970s ­80s – Japan embraced quality management concepts and reaped immense benefits Walter Shewhart (1891 ­1967) •  StaOsOcian working at Bell labs •  One of the first to encourage the use of staOsOcs in engineering quality quesOons •  One of the first individuals to concentrate on how subjec+ve customer wants are aligned with physical product proper+es to determine product requirements Edwards Deming (1900 ­1993) •  First to use staOsOcs that encouraged management of quality pracOces •  14 main points that focused on management and leadership, including: –  Create constancy of purpose toward conOnuous improvement with aim to build business –  Adopt the philosophy –  Cease dependence on inspecOon to achieve quality –  Eliminate doing business by price tag, minimize total cost –  Eliminate arbitrary goals and quotas –  InsOtute training in the organizaOon Philip Crosby •  Defined quality as conformance to requirements  ­ helped to make quality more ‘manageable’ •  Determining root causes of failures and prevenOng defects ensures conformance to requirements •  Customer needs drive product characterisOcs •  Worked on understanding the costs associated with producing quality goods and meeOng expectaOons Other Quality Pioneers Joseph Juran Created awareness of the need to insOll conOnuous improvement as part of any job, any employee, any department IdenOfied that resistance to change comes from culture barriers Focused on quality planning and quality control Armand Feigenbaum Originator of modern total quality movement, recognized that changing customer demands pressure businesses to improve to succeed Karou Ishikawa •  Developed the idea that quality is applied broadly through the organizaOon using tools such as: –  Cause and Effect Diagrams, Pareto analysis, Kaizen •  Emphasized quality management through: –  Cross ­funcOonal mgmt, worker involvement –  EducaOon, selfless commitment • Emphasized consistency of performance and reducOon of variaOon in terms of overall costs • Formalized the discipline of problem solving: recogniOon, definiOon, isolaOon, analysis and resoluOon Genichi Taguchi InfluenOal in introducing the DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) model, a fundamental six sigma problem solving method Walter Deming EvoluOon of Quality Management •  Quality masters realized the benefit of persisOng quality methods throughout the work environment •  Training front ­line workers in staOsOcal quality control enabled them to take more accountability for the quality of their work, and allowed those inOmately familiar with the processes, not just managers, to use their knowledge to take acOon to conOnuously improve those processes •  The concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Quality Control (QC) gradually evolved Quality Management Leaders •  Japanese companies were the first to successfully integrated TQM into their corporate culture –  Embraced the idea of organizaOonal change and embedding quality into every aspect of their operaOons •  Japan won large global market share in electronics and automobiles •  USA began to embrace quality control as well •  Quality is now accepted as an important strategic parameter for business planning and a driver of organizaOonal goals High Performance OrganizaOons •  How do high performance organizaOons exemplify quality in their products and behavior? What the heck is Quality anyway? Quality Defined •  Quality (marketplace) ­ how free a purchased product is from defects and how well it meets stated needs, implied needs and requirements for use •  Quality exists only when a customer finds value and saOsfacOon in the use of the product •  Quality (manufacturing processes) ­ And error free system that has the ability to provide the consumer with a product or service as specified •  Dr. Armand Feigenbaum (1920s), originator of the total quality movement, defines quality as: –  “A customer determinaOon which is based on the customers’ actual experience with the product or services, measured against his or her requirements, stated or unstated… always represenOng a moving target in a compeOOve market” What is Quality? •  The term ‘quality’ covers a wide scope of measures, processes, people and infrastructure, all of which must be integrated •  Quality characterisOcs, or the specified product targets and tolerances, are defined by customer expectaOons and latent needs •  Dimensions of Quality: Performance, features, reliability, conformance, durability, serviceability, aestheOcs, percepOon •  Quality must be persisted at all stages of the product development process, this is not easy! •  Quality Engineering – a relaOvely new engineering discipline: the body of knowledge contribuOng to the creaOon of quality products that lead to customer saOsfacOon Total Quality Management System •  In order to produce a high quality product, markeOng, design, engineering and manufacturing acOviOes needs to be aligned with respect to the organizaOon’s over ­ arching quality objecOves throughout the product development process •  MarkeOng collects and analyzes customer needs, designers transform this informaOon into product specificaOons, engineers create products to meet design specificaOons, producOon workers and engineers convert parts and material into working products •  Quality is everybody’s job! Total Quality Management System •  The appropriate infrastructure must be in place to support an organizaOon’s culture of quality •  High ­level managerial Support •  Training & EducaOon •  Defined accountability & responsibility •  Access to the right tools & equipment •  Measurement devices •  The commitment to conOnuously improve •  Fact ­based decision making Quality Management Systems •  ISO 9000: InternaOonally recognized and regulated quality system •  Provides standardized guidelines for management of a company’s processes and procedures, products and informaOon •  Not in an of itself a sign that a company is a high ­ performing company – in fact complying to standards efficiently is challenging – it’s hard to follow proper procedure if it slows you down! To say Starbucks purchases and roasts high ­ quality whole bean coffees is very true. That’s the essence of what we do – but it hardly tells the whole story .. We Stand Behind Our Work, 100% Remember… •  OperaOonal innovaOon is not glamorous – the fundamentals of improvement and ulOmate success are based on a team’s ability to find ways to create and implement improvements. •  Outsourcing, internet, global poliOcs, industrial regulaOon, growing consumer awareness, and advancements in tools will drive how companies manage quality Quality and Corporate Culture •  Successful quality ­centric organizaOons: –  integrate quality into all aspects of organizaOon –  focus on using customer input (VoC) as a key source of info for making improvements –  Have a clear vision statement that guides management to create strategic plans that support objecOves –  Successfully communicate a common value system that is held by all employees CreaOng a strategic plan •  Once the commitment is made by senior management to embrace a quality ­focused culture, high level objecOves must be driven down through the organizaOon, objecOves that seek to establish market share, grow new markets and overcome compeOOon •  A balanced scorecard is one tool that is used to idenOfy and communicate acOonable iniOaOves that outline what needs to be achieved and how it will be measured •  Goals must be aggressive – stretch goals ensure that quality is conOnuously improved Example of Balanced Scorecard Costs of Quality •  Quality improvement projects use staOsOcal methods and other control tools to reduce borom line costs and improve profitability (ex. dollars of revenue gained, Ome saved, % units sold etc.) •  The value of a project (or the cost of not acOng) can be defined by the concept of ‘quality costs’ •  Quality costs are ‘operaOonal’ in nature – they support day ­to ­day producOon requirements Costs of Quality  ­ ClassificaOon •  PrevenOon costs: expenses incurred for prevenOng defects (planning, reviews, training) •  Appraisal costs: expense of appraising product/ process condiOon wrt specificaOons (inventory, maintenance, inspecOon materials) •  Internal failure costs: expense of defects (scrap, rework, subopOmal scheduling) •  External failure costs: cost of failure as seen by the customer (complaints, returns, warranty) Making a case for quality costs •  Summarize quality problems by quanOfying them through their costs to ensure that proposed improvements are viable •  Clearly communicaOng the costs to managers will also increase the likelihood that the project will be supported •  Steps for a quality cost study: secure managerial approval, conduct the study, analyze the data, and use the results to implement improvements Analyzing and communicaOng quality cost analysis results •  In poor quality environments, big improvements from small changes can be found relaOvely easily •  SomeOmes raw data can send a powerful message about the costs of bad quality •  Expressing the data as a percentage of sales, costs, labor or profit helps to put the magnitude of the problem into perspecOve Example of quality costs and project assessment •  The VP of markeOng in a large car manufacturing company called Automo calls Tom, an engineer and says that customer service has received mulOple warranty claims for seats tearing. He asks you to re ­design the car seat so that no more failures occur. This seat is used in 15 different product models and your company builds over 50,000 of them a year at 5 different producOon faciliOes. What do you do? Quality Basics – Process & ProducOvity •  Process: series of steps or acOons, completed by someone/something in a deliberate order, intended to produce and/or achieve a specific result (inputs work outputs) •  ProducOvity: OperaOng in a manner that best uOlizes resources – efficiency •  Efficient processes lead to increased producOvity, effecOve processes produce high quality outputs Quality Basics  ­ VariaOon •  Reducing variaOon is a fundamental improvement method used in manufacturing engineering •  Determining why process differences exist and removing causes of these differences results in a consistently higher quality product •  SpecificaOons: staOng product characterisOcs in terms of a desired target – the tolerance limits of a characterisOc define what is acceptable variaOon for each instance Quality Basics: VariaOon analysis The Control Chart •  Control chart: shows variaOon of performance with respect to a metric – what can we learn from looking at different types of data? •  Time/seasonal/cyclical sales person •  ComposiOon changes (material, concentraOon) •  Trends (Creep in mean, repeat outliers) •  Parerns (shiY changes, faOgue, maintenance) Quality Basics – InspecOon, QA/QC, Lean Engineering •  InspecOon – acOviOes for detecOon of nonconformance (examining a quality characterisOc) •  Quality Control – use of specificaOon and inspecOon of completed parts to sustain and improve quality of a product •  Lean Management: driving waste out of the producOon cycle, doing more with less, operaOng in a way that makes it easier to maintain quality processes Quality Basics  ­ Product Planning •  During the product planning stage, target markets and prioriOzed customer requirements are generated •  Quality and reliability goals are set to reflect customer expectaOons (ex. comfort, appearance, performance) •  Customer latent needs can be hard to discover, and a great deal of effort is expended by organizaOons in translaOng needs into an appropriate set of requirements – requirements that are ulOmately transformed into product specificaOons Quality Basics  ­ Customer Requirements •  Customer surveys, voice of the customer analysis, salesperson input and quesOonnaires are some ways to generate customer requirements •  Requirements are developed by a team of employees, each with a unique perspecOve and focus •  This informaOon is used in addiOon to the knowledge acquired through the compleOon of previous designs – to determine if iniOal values of design parameters are ‘good enough’ to meet the new target expectaOons •  A designed experiment can help opOmize these targets •  Quality funcOon deployment (QFD) tools help to rate and prioriOzed customer preferences Quality Basics – Designing for Quality •  AcOviOes that are performed from product concept through to delivery are called the Product CreaOon cycle or product development process, and can generally be described by a series of steps: •  Plan ­Design ­Build ­Validate •  In the real world, the design cycles is very complex, and design process persists through all of these steps Quality Basics  ­ Six Sigma IntroducOon •  Motorola coined the term ‘Six Sigma’, a quality ­ focused process that uses a methodology similar to that developed by Japanese companies •  Other American companies (GE, Motorola, IBM, HP, Ford) increased profitability from implemenOng Six Sigma as well •  Six Sigma was developed at Motorola, a strategy focused on improving quality in order to reduce with failures and increase system reliability Quality Basics  ­ Six Sigma IntroducOon •  Six Sigma is a management methodology focused on achieving results that enhance profitability through improved quality and efficiency –  customer oriented  ­ needs drive business improvement –  Data driven, process focused –  knowledge based, enhances understanding •  Key Benefits: –  Increased customer value and company financial performance Quality Basics  ­ Six Sigma IntroducOon •  In Six Sigma methodology customer needs are translated into specific improvement projects that directly contribute to the borom ­line of an organizaOon •  Six Sigma improvement projects oYen focus on achieving increased profitability by: removing excess variaOon from their processes, seeking out sources of waste/inefficiency and reducing defects •  The implements soluOon results in process improvement, reduced cycle Ome, eliminaOon of defects and increased producOvity Quality Basics  ­ Six Sigma IntroducOon •  A primary Six Sigma measure of performance is process capability – a variance ­based calculaOon that determines whether a process meets customer expectaOons •  Note that in order to assess process capability, the process must be stable, as only then can one compare the variability of a process with customer expectaOons What does the term Six Sigma stand for? •  6σ is a performance measure of process capability that indicates the number of defects that occur within a process •  6σ is considered the highest level of quality  ­ a 6σ process generates only 3.4 defects/million, a yield of 99.9997%! •  Why such a high level of quality? A couple of reasons… Why would an organizaOon wish to achieve 6σ? •  At a zero defect level, there is no need for inspecOon •  Quality costs are minimized •  Risk reducOon –  the resources required to perform inspecOons (inspecOons oYen miss defects – up to 40%) are unnecessary –  the benefit of no defects perpetuates throughout the organizaOon, reducing warranty claims, re ­work, etc. –  High ­level objecOves and capabiliOes of the organizaOon can be stated with greater certainty –  Employees can be proud of the collaboraOve effort required to achieve 6σ  ­ the company operates at an elite level •  InsOlls a culture of excellence How is a six sigma culture insOlled into an organizaOon •  Six Sigma is not just a set of staOsOcal techniques, it is an organizaOonal mentality •  To build the necessary capabiliOes and culture, a comprehensive educaOon, training and support structure must be established •  Employees must be educated in techniques and tools used to control processes and gauge capability Quality in ProducOon vs. elsewhere •  Some organizaOons limit their involvement with six sigma projects to the manufacturing environment – certain Six Sigma tools are most useful and more easily applied within this context •  Other more qualitaOve methods, guidelines and tools can be used to tackle quality ­related problems in other parts of the organizaOon and the product development cycle Six Sigma Project Methodology •  Uses the DMAIC model – quality projects whose results directly affect a company’s borom line •  Define – understand the nature of the problem •  Measure – use data to confirm your hypothesis •  Analyze – understand soluOon alternaOves •  Improve – implement the soluOon •  Control – monitor the new process using key metrics Six Sigma (a.k.a. Problem Solving) •  Every Six Sigma project follows the basic steps of problem solving: •  Problem recogniOon •  Problem DefiniOon –  what’s the problem, how important is it, what is acceptable?? –  IdenOfy what is impacted, determine performance metrics –  establish baseline, understand current performance –  (tools: brainstorming, affinity diagrams, C&E diagrams) •  Analyze the problem •  Determine possible root causes •  IdenOfy and implement the opOmal soluOon •  Evaluate the soluOon •  Ensure permanence –  AYer soluOon is implemented, check to see if problem is solved –  Adopt the change standardize the improvement Examples of other Six Sigma Tools •  Some examples of tools used in Six Sigma projects that we will be looking at include: •  SPC, QFD, FMEA, DoE Project Management, teamwork, training, failure analysis, control charts, process capability analysis, process mapping, cause and effect diagrams CriOcisms of Six Sigma •  Six Sigma can be expensive and Ome ­consuming •  Care must be taken to ensure that the benefits of reduced variability jusOfy the effort •  Six Sigma is difficult to implement in a volaOle design development environment – a certain level of process maturity is needed What we’ll be learning in ENGR 9397 •  Applying learned staOsOcal concepts to quality control and management problems •  How to apply six sigma tools and techniques within the design & manufacturing environment in order to improve quality and increase reliability •  How quality control tools and quality management methods are integrated to create a lean enterprise Minitab SoYware •  RelaOvely user ­friendly soYware •  Useful for verifying calculaOons and performing more complicated analyses •  SoYware is no subsOtute for common sense •  We will be reinforcing concepts learned with Minitab examples both in class and with assignments ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2011 for the course ENGR 9397 taught by Professor Susanhunt during the Winter '11 term at Memorial University.

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