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Unformatted text preview: Production of Alcohol: Fermentation by
Anaerobic conditions Glucose Pyruvate CO2 Ethanol Maltose S ucrose from Grapes=alcohol Wheat (starch, from glucose)=alcohol Absorption of Alcohol
! soluble in BOTH water & lipid Stomach
• Digestion: not required • Absorption: EASY: Simple diffusion through cell membranes • Intestine
• Absorption: EASY: Simple diffusion through cell membranes • Portal vein to Liver alcohol dehydrogenase=alcohol>acetaldehyde Metabolism of alcohol inhibits citric acid cycle All the acetyl-CoA is turned into fat Normal level of alcohol=alcohol d ehydrogenase high levels (+drugs)=Meos (normal drug d etoxiﬁcation system) Food slows the absorption of alcohol Dilutes the content in the stomach Food protects stomach Women cannot drink as much as men 1 ! 1. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Ethanol
Depends on: Acetaldehyde 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Gender, genetics Body size, % lean body mass Food in stomach Amount of alcohol Physical condition: Fasting stomach alcohol dehydrogenase men have a higher percentage of body water males metabolize alcohol faster 2. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde Acetyl CoA Acetaldehyde very TOXIC:
1. Carcinogenic 2. Some people lack this enzyme: results in nausea, flushing 3. Antabuse inhibits enzyme Antabuse gives people negative effects to stop drinking older men post menopausal women 2 ! Huge Dose of Alcohol
1. Swamps metabolic pathways-blocks production of glucose (brain) 2. Hypoglycemia 3. Depresses central nervous system 4. Coma 5. Death Usually person passes out before lethal dose, but can be lethal by drinking very quickly Liver Damage by Alcohol
1. Increased fatty acid synthesis 2. Alcohol preferentially metabolized 3. Accumulation of acetaldehyde 4. Liver clogged with Fat slows persons breathe no friends-number one killer cirrhosis of liver-alcohol n ot making glucose acetylcoa becomes fat If liver is clogged with fat, it doesn't make bile e ffectively, don't generate glucoses, don't do vitamin metabolic reactions alcoholics are deﬁcient in vitamins (supplements do not help because liver is clogged) Liver Damage by Alcohol
5. How does the liver get rid of fat? 6. Cirrhosis Portrait of an Alcoholic high amount of triglycerides=high ldl breaking down protein 3 ! Effects on Vitamin Metabolism Interferes with absorption:
Folate deficiency due to mucosa damage, more excreted Vitamin C: altered liver metabolism Vitamin A:
inability of liver to make carrier protein, increased degradation, impaired conversion of !-carotene to retinoids Vitamin D: decreased activation with liver damage bone cell dysfunction Vitamin E: reduced pancreatic enzymes Iron: deficiency and toxicity: due to injuries in GI tract Bottom Line: giving vitamin supplements to an alcoholic won’t help What is a HANGOVER? what causes hangover acute and chronic 4 ! Alcohol & Sexual Assault
Popular treatments for hangovers Water: for rehydration Caffeine Aspirin Tylenol More alcohol • Most frequently used date rape drug. • Impairs inhibitions, judgment, decisionmaking. • Risk for: – sexual assault, – sexually transmitted diseases – being in an embarrassing situation in the morning. Need MEOS to dexotify, so don't take caffeine, a spirin, tylenol Summary • Liver disorders: the liver is crucial to
overall health, its destruction is serious • Glucose Control: In a fasting state, ethanol may produce hypoglycemia; this effect can persist for 8 - 12 hours after the last drink. • Ethanol can’t be converted to glucose • Ethanol inhibits gluconeogenesis Words to Know
• Ethanol • Alcohol dehydrogenase • Acetaldehyde • Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase • MEOS • • • • • • Hypoglycemia Fatty liver Cirrhosis Antabuse Gluconeogenesis Hangover 5 ! ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2011 for the course NUTRISCI 10 taught by Professor Benodelumen during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.
- Spring '10