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Ch 07 - SEVEN The Crime Laboratory UNDERSTANDING CRIME LAB...

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SEVEN The Crime Laboratory
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UNDERSTANDING CRIME LAB CAPABILITIES It is not unusual to find situations in which investigators not acquainted with the services of the crime laboratory expect too much from scientific analysis The analysis of evidence can be no better than the samples submitted The investigator therefore has a vital role to play in the success of laboratory examinations
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FORENSIC SCIENCE Forensic science is that part of science applied to answering legal questions. It includes: The examination The evaluation And the explanation of physical evidence in law
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CRIMINALISTICS Criminalistics deals with the study of physical evidence related to a crime From such a study a crime may be reconstructed Criminalistics is interdisciplinary in nature drawing upon: Mathematics Physics Chemistry Biology
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SOURCES OF DNA EVIDENCE These are common sources of blood and DNA evidence that investigators need to be aware of in conducting crime scene searches. Evidence Possible Location of DNA on the Evidence Source of DNA Baseball bat or similar weapon Hat, bandana, or mask Eyeglasses Facial tissue or cotton swab Dirty laundry Toothpick Used cigarette Stamp or envelope Tape or ligature Bottle, can, or glass Used condom Blanket, pillow, or sheet “Through and through” bullet Bite mark Fingernail or partial fingernail Handle, end Inside Nose or ear pieces, lens Surface area Surface area Tips Cigarette butt Licked area Inside or outside surface Sides, mouthpiece Inside or outside surface Surface area Outside surface Person’s skin or clothing Scrapings Sweat, skin, blood, tissue Sweat, hair, dandruff Sweat, skin Mucus, blood, sweat, semen, earwax Blood, sweat, semen, vomit Saliva Saliva Saliva Skin, sweat Saliva, sweat Semen, vaginal or rectal cells Sweat, hair, semen, urine, saliva, dandruff Blood, tissue Saliva Blood, tissue, sweat
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DNA ANALYSIS Advances in technology have helped DNA testing to become an established part of criminal justice procedure Questions about the validity and reliability of forensic DNA test methods have been addressed, and for the most part validity and reliability are established As a result of DNA testing, traditional blood testing and
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