zumdahl_chemprin_6e_csm_ch17

zumdahl_chemprin_6e_csm_ch17 - CHAPTER 17 PROPERTIES OF...

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668 CHAPTER 17 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS Solution Composition 12. Mass percent: the percent by mass of the solute in the solution. Mole fraction: the ratio of the number of moles of a given component to the total number of moles of solution. Molarity: the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. Molality: the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. Volume is temperature-dependent, whereas mass and the number of moles are not. Only molarity has a volume term, so only molarity is temperature-dependent. 13. a. HNO 3 (l) H + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) b. Na 2 SO 4 (s) 2 Na + (aq) + SO 4 2 (aq) c. Al(NO 3 ) 3 (s) Al 3+ (aq) + 3 NO 3 (aq) d. SrBr 2 (s) Sr 2+ (aq) + 2 Br (aq) e. KClO 4 (s) K + (aq) + ClO 4 (aq) f. NH 4 Br(s) NH 4 + (aq) + Br (aq) g. NH 4 NO 3 (s) NH 4 + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) h. CuSO 4 (s) Cu 2+ (aq) + SO 4 2 (aq) i. NaOH(s) Na + (aq) + OH (aq) 14. Mol Na 2 CO 3 = 0.0700 L × L CO Na mol 0 . 3 3 2 = 0.21 mol Na 2 CO 3 N a 2 CO 3 (s) 2 Na + (aq) + CO 3 2 (aq); mol Na + = 2(0.21) = 0.42 mol Mol NaHCO 3 = 0.0300 L × L NaHCO mol 0 . 1 3 = 0.030 mol NaHCO 3 NaHCO 3 (s) Na + (aq) + HCO 3 (aq); mol Na + = 0.030 mol L 1000 . 0 mol 45 . 0 L 030 . 0 L 0700 . 0 mol 030 . 0 mol 42 . 0 volume total Na mol total Na = = = + + + + M = 4.5 M Na +
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CHAPTER 17 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS 669 15. Molality = g 07 . 62 EG mol 1 kg g 1000 O H g 0 . 60 EG g 0 . 40 2 × × = 10.7 mol/kg Molarity = g 07 . 62 mol 1 L cm 1000 cm g 05 . 1 solution g 0 . 100 EG g 0 . 40 3 3 × × × = 6.77 mol/L 40.0 g EG × g 07 . 62 mol 1 = 0.644 mol EG; 60.0 g H 2 O × g 02 . 18 mol 1 = 3.33 mol H 2 O 644 . 0 33 . 3 644 . 0 χ EG + = = 0.162 = mole fraction ethylene glycol 16. Hydrochloric acid (HCl): molarity = g 36.5 HCl mol 1 L cm 1000 soln cm soln g 1.19 soln g 100. HCl g 38 3 3 × × × = 12 mol/L molality = g 5 . 36 HCl mol 1 kg g 1000 solvent g 62 HCl g 38 × × = 17 mol/kg 38 g HCl × g 5 . 36 mol 1 = 1.0 mol HCl; 62 g H 2 O × g 0 . 18 mol 1 = 3.4 mol H 2 O mole fraction of HCl = 0 . 1 4 . 3 0 . 1 χ HCl + = = 0.23 Nitric acid (HNO 3 ): g 0 . 63 HNO mol 1 L cm 1000 soln cm soln g 42 . 1 soln g . 100 HNO g . 70 3 3 3 3 × × × = 16 mol/L g 0 . 63 HNO mol 1 kg g 1000 solvent g . 30 HNO g . 70 3 3 × × = 37 mol/kg 70. g HNO 3 × g 0 . 63 mol 1 = 1.1 mol HNO 3 ; 30. g H 2 O × g 0 . 18 mol 1 = 1.7 mol H 2 O 1 . 1 7 . 1 1 . 1 χ 3 HNO + = = 0.39
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670 CHAPTER 17 PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS Sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ): 4 2 4 2 3 3 4 2 SO H g 1 . 98 SO H mol 1 L cm 1000 soln cm soln g 84 . 1 soln g . 100 SO H g 95 × × × = 18 mol/L g 1 . 98 mol 1 kg g 1000 O H g 5 SO H g 95 2 4 2 × × = 194 mol/kg 200 mol/kg 95 g H 2 SO 4 × g 1 . 98 mol 1 = 0.97 mol H 2 SO 4 ; 5 g H 2 O × g 0 . 18 mol 1 = 0.3 mol H 2 O 3 . 0 97 . 0 97 . 0 χ 4 2 SO H + = = 0.76 Acetic Acid (CH 3 CO 2 H): g 05 . 60 mol 1 L cm 1000 soln cm soln g 05 . 1 soln g . 100 H CO CH g 99 3 3 2 3 × × × = 17 mol/L g 05 . 60 mol 1 kg g 1000 O H g 1 H CO CH g 99 2 2 3 × × = 1600 mol/kg 2000 mol/kg 99 g CH 3 CO 2 H × g 05 . 60 mol 1 = 1.6 mol CH 3 CO 2 H; 1 g H 2 O × g 0 . 18 mol 1 = 0.06 mol H 2 O 06 . 0 6 . 1 6 . 1 χ H CO CH 2 3 + = = 0.96 Ammonia (NH 3 ): g 0 . 17 mol 1 L cm 1000 cm g 90 . 0 soln g . 100 NH g 28 3 3 3 × × × = 15 mol/L g 0 . 17 mol 1 kg g 1000 O H g 72 NH g 28 2 3 × × = 23 mol/kg 28 g NH 3 H g 0 . 17 mol 1 = 1.6 mol NH 3 ; 72 g H 2 O H g 0 . 18 mol 1 = 4.0 mol H 2 O 6 . 1 0 . 4 6 . 1 χ 3 NH + = = 0.29 17. 25 mL C 5 H 12 × mL g 63 . 0
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2011 for the course CHEM 232 taught by Professor Malambri,w during the Spring '11 term at Kentucky.

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zumdahl_chemprin_6e_csm_ch17 - CHAPTER 17 PROPERTIES OF...

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