Ch_6_Ques_&_Brief_Exercises - ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1....

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ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. Money has value because with it one can acquire assets and services and discharge obligations. The holding, borrowing or lending of money can result in costs or earnings. And the longer the time period involved, the greater the costs or the earnings. The cost or earning of money as a function of time is the time value of money. Accountants must have a working knowledge of compound interest, annuities, and present value concepts because of their application to numerous types of business events and transactions which require proper valuation and presentation. These concepts are applied in the following areas: (1) sinking funds, (2) installment contracts, (3) pensions, (4) long-term assets, (5) leases, (6) notes receivable and payable, (7) business combinations, and (8) amortization of premiums and discounts. 2. Some situations in which present value measures are used in accounting include: (a) Notes receivable and payable—these involve single sums (the face amounts) and may involve annuities, if there are periodic interest payments. (b) Leases—involve measurement of assets and obligations, which are based on the present value of annuities (lease payments) and single sums (if there are residual values to be paid at the conclusion of the lease). (c) Pensions and other deferred compensation arrangements—involve discounted future annuity payments that are estimated to be paid to employees upon retirement. (d) Bond pricing—the price of bonds payable is comprised of the present value of the principal or face value of the bond plus the present value of the annuity of interest payments. (e) Long-term assets—evaluating various long-term investments or assessing whether an asset is impaired requires determining the present value of the estimated cash flows (may be single sums and/or an annuity). 3. Interest is the payment for the use of money. It may represent a cost or earnings depending upon whether the money is being borrowed or loaned. The earning or incurring of interest is a function of the time, the amount of money, and the risk involved (reflected in the interest rate). Simple interest is computed on the amount of the principal only, while compound interest is computed on the amount of the principal plus any accumulated interest. Compound interest involves interest on interest while simple interest does not. 4. The interest rate generally has three components: (1) Pure rate of interest—This would be the amount a lender would charge if there were no possibilities of default and no expectation of inflation. (2) Expected inflation rate of interest—Lenders recognize that in an inflationary
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2011 for the course ACT 4495 taught by Professor Burks during the Fall '10 term at Troy.

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Ch_6_Ques_&_Brief_Exercises - ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1....

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