Ch_11_Ques_&_Brief_Exercises - ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS...

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ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. The differences among the terms depreciation, depletion, and amortization are that they imply a cost allocation of different types of assets. Depreciation is employed to indicate that tangible plant assets have decreased in carrying value. Where natural resources (wasting assets) such as timber, oil, coal, and lead are involved, the term depletion is used. The expiration of intangible assets such as patents or copyrights is referred to as amortization. 2. The factors relevant in determining the annual depreciation for a depreciable asset are the initial recorded amount (cost), estimated salvage value, estimated useful life, and depreciation method. Assets are typically recorded at their acquisition cost, which is in most cases objectively determinable. But cost assignments in other cases—“basket purchases” and the selection of an implicit interest rate in asset acquisition under deferred- payment plans—may be quite subjective, involving considerable judgment. The salvage value is an estimate of an amount potentially realizable when the asset is retired from service. The estimate is based on judgment and is affected by the length of the useful life of the asset. The useful life is also based on judgment. It involves selecting the “unit” of measure of service life and estimating the number of such units embodied in the asset. Such units may be measured in terms of time periods or in terms of activity (for example, years or machine hours). When selecting the life, one should select the lower (shorter) of the physical life or the economic life. Physical life involves wear and tear and casualties; economic life involves such things as technological obsolescence and inadequacy. Selecting the depreciation method is generally a judgment decision, but a method may be inherent in the definition adopted for the units of service life, as discussed earlier. For example, if such units are machine hours, the method is a function of the number of machine hours used during each period. A method should be selected that will best measure the portion of services expiring each period. Once a method is selected, it may be objectively applied by using a predetermined, objectively derived formula. 3. Accounting depreciation is defined as an accounting process of allocating the costs of tangible assets to expense in a systematic and rational manner to the periods expected to benefit from the use of the asset. Thus, depreciation is not a matter of valuation but a means of cost allocation. 4. The carrying value of a fixed asset is its cost less accumulated depreciation. If the company estimates that the asset will have an unrealistically long life, periodic depreciation charges, and hence accumulated depreciation, will be lower. As a result the carrying value of the asset will be higher. 5.
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2011 for the course ACT 4495 taught by Professor Burks during the Fall '10 term at Troy.

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Ch_11_Ques_&_Brief_Exercises - ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS...

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