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Exam 3 Review Chapter 10

# Exam 3 Review Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Gases In this chapter...

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Chapter 10: Gases “In this chapter we will examine the physical properties of gases and consider how we can understand these properties in terms of the behavior of gas molecules.” Examples: temperature pressure volume moles 1. Identify 3 characteristics of gases and give examples of each. - They can compress under pressure - They form homogenous mixtures - The molecules themselves are spaced far apart the molecules behave largely as if the others are not present\ 2. What is the major reason that physical properties do not differ much from one gaseous substance to another? The molecules are so far apart they don’t interact with each other, making no opportunity for variation PRESSURE Pressure (P) is the force that acts on a given area (A). P = F / A Force? Mass x acceleration Units? Newtons - Pascals (kg) 9.8m/s^2 Example: Balloon filled with air Atmospheric pressure is the force of the molecules composing air on a given area. Recall the vacuum demonstration.

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3. If atmospheric pressure is so great, why doesn’t it crush us all? Standard atmospheric pressure is the pressure sufficient to support a column of mercury 760mm high. 4. What happens to the height of the mercury column in a mercury barometer as you move to a higher altitude? Why? (barometer is open to the atmosphere!) The Hg column lowers because there is less pressure pushing it up the tube 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 1.01325 e 5 Pa = 101.325 kPa 5. In countries that use the metric system, such as Canada, weather reports give atmospheric pressure in units of kPa. Convert a pressure of 745 torr to kPa. 745 torr 760 torr 101.325 kPa = 99.3 kPa 6. An English unit of pressure sometimes used in engineering is pounds per square inch, or psi (1 atm = 14.7 psi). If a pressure is reported as 91.5 psi, express the measurement in atm. 91.5 psi 14.7 psi 1 atm = 6.22 atm Manometers measure the pressures of enclosed gases . 7. An open-end manometer containing mercury is connected to a container of gas. What is the pressure of the enclosed gas in torr in each of the following situations? (manometer is the goose-neck one)
a. The mercury in the arm attached to the gas is 18.2 mm higher than in the one open to the atmosphere; atmospheric pressure is 0.945 atm. b. The mercury in the arm attached to the gas is 1.6 cm lower than in the one open to the atmosphere; atmospheric pressure is .85 atm. The gas laws can all be derived from the ideal-gas equation: BOYLE’S LAW The volume of a fixed quantity of gas maintained at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure.

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Exam 3 Review Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Gases In this chapter...

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