Chapter 1 - Dynamic Earth

Chapter 1 - Dynamic Earth - Chapter1Review(Bold print...

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Chapter 1 Review   (Bold print indicates potential quiz question) (1)   Geology  means “the study of Earth.” The two broad areas of the science of geology are (1)  physical  geology, which examines the materials composing Earth and the processes that operate beneath and upon  its surface; and (2) historical geology, which seeks to understand the origin of Earth and its development  through time. (2)   The relationship between people and the natural environment is an important focus of geology. This  includes natural hazards, resources, and human influences on geologic processes. Natural hazards – volcanoes, floods, earthquakes, landslides.  Resources – water and soil, metallic  and nonmetallic minerals, and energy.  Human influence – clearing forest or building cities could influence river  flooding ( 3) During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, catastrophism influenced the formulation of explanations about Earth. Catastrophism states that Earth’s landscapes developed over short time spans primarily as a result of great catastrophes. By contrast, uniformitarianism, one of the fundamental principles of modern geology advanced by James Hutton in the late 1700s, states that the physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today have also operated in the geologic past. The idea is often summarized as “The present is the key to the past.” Hutton argued that processes that appear to be slow-acting could, over long spans of time, produce effects that are just as great as those resulting from sudden catastrophic events. Bishop of Ussher, Ireland: biblical chronology, Earth created in 4004 BC – Sudden and violent  change, supported by observation of rapid processes.  James Hutton (and others): “physical, chemical, and biological  laws do not change”, “the present is the key to the past”, great age for the earth, small change over long time rather 
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than great change over short time.  Modern science says Earth could be around 4.5 billion years old. (4) Using the principles of relative dating, the placing of events in their proper sequence or order without knowing their age in years, scientists developed a geologic time scale during the nineteenth century. Relative dates can be
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