chapter11 - Chapter 11 Motivation Motivation q...

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Chapter 11 Motivation
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Motivation Psychologists have made strides in understanding complicated motivated behaviors, from eating to riding roller coasters to drug addiction. We will begin with some general principles of motivation, and then examine hunger, sex drive, and achievement.
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General Principles of Motivation
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Properties of Motivated Behaviors They are goal directed – motivated individuals keep working until they reach their goal. Motivations vary from time to time and from one person to the next.
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Views of Motivation It is hard to develop a satisfactory definition of motivation. The word motivation is derived from the same root as “motion” – something that moves an organism to action. Historically, since about 1900, there have been several frameworks that have been used to understand what motivation is.
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Views of Motivation Motivation as an Instinctive Energy Freud believed that sexual energy called “libido” resides in the nervous system. Lorenz and others proposed that animals behave in instinctive ways when certain energies reach a critical level.
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A specific kind of energy builds up and needs to be released. If it is not released through the preferred outlet, it will release through a less preferred outlet .
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Views of Motivation Motivation as an Energy This view is based upon an obsolete conception of how the nervous system works, and does not account for its complexity.
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Views of Motivation Next: Drive Theories A drive is an internal state of unrest or irritation that energizes any behavior (usually learned) that reduces it. Drives arise from biological needs. Drive-reduction theory proposes that animals strive to reduce their drives as much as possible.
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Drive Theories Drive Theories drive Biological need motivated behavior Partially explains certain behaviors, such as eating when hungry.
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Drive Theories Drive Theories drive hunger (lateral hypothalamus) Biological need motivated behavior Fasting --> need food food seeking reduce need for food ...eat food
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Drive Theories Many drives are homeostatic (Cannon, 1920s). Homeostasis is the maintenance of an animal’s internal environment: Hundreds of conditions such as body temperature, salt and water balance, blood sugar, blood pressure and weight are maintained at a state of equilibrium.
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Drive Theories Homeostasis Controlling mechanisms: physiological mechanisms (hypothalamic hormones - negative feedback) behavior Example: body temperature hypothalamus - pituitary - thyroid hormones turning on heat or A/C clothes
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Homeostasis Shortcomings of drive theories But OTHER factors influence homeostasis: Vanity influences the clothes we wear. Social or cognitive factors influence eating.
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chapter11 - Chapter 11 Motivation Motivation q...

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