chapter5 - Chapter 5 Nature, Nurture, Human Development...

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Chapter 5 Nature, Nurture, Human Development
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Heritability Some psychologists investigate whether a particular trait is inherited, or “runs in families”. example: is schizophrenia inherited? The study soon encounters the issue that family members share both similar genes similar environment Heritability involves genes and not environment.
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Genes and Behavior Monozygotic , or identical, twins develop from a single fertilized egg and have identical genes. Dyzygotic , or fraternal, twins develop from two eggs and share only half of their genes, like any other sibling set. Studying sets of twins is a useful and informative way to know more about the influence of genes on behavior.
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Genes are sections of chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell.
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Genetic Principles Genes Genes are sections of chromosomes that control protein production in order to produce specific characteristics. For example, a specific group of genes will exert a large influence over eye color.
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Chromosomes Most animal and plant cells contain a nucleus with hereditary material – instructions in the form of strands called chromosomes. Humans have 46 chromosomes – 23 pairs – in every body cell The exception: sperm and egg cells, which contain 23 unpaired chromosomes that unite at conception. Genetic Principles
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Genetic Principles Genes Genes are composed of DNA , chemicals that control the production of RNA. RNA in turn controls the production of proteins. The proteins may become part of the individual’s body, or control the rate of chemical reactions in the body.
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G enes, composed of DNA, control the production of RNA, which in turn controls the production of proteins. Proteins form many structures of the body (e.g., muscles); they also control the rate of chemical reactions (e.g., digestion).
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Human chromosomes
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The gene for a given trait can be the same on both chromosomes. OR: The gene for a given trait can be different on each chromosome.
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Genetic Principles Genes If an individual receives different genes, one gene for wavy hair and another for straight hair, that individual’s hair will be wavy. The gene for wavy hair is a “dominant” gene. A dominant gene will exert its effects even if that individual’s other gene is recessive.
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Genetic Principles Genes A recessive gene will show its effects only if both genes are recessive. For example, the gene for blue eye color is a recessive gene. You must receive a gene for blue eyes from both parents in order to develop blue eyes.
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Bb BB (parents) BB BB bB bB BB BB BB BB BB BB Bb Bb BB Bb bB bb Some examples
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their children’s eye color? All their children will have blue eyes too.
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Michaelleyton during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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chapter5 - Chapter 5 Nature, Nurture, Human Development...

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