chapter06 - Chapter 6 LEARNING Learning q Learning is...

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Chapter 6 LEARNING
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Learning Learning is defined as any relatively permanent change in behavior that is based upon experience. Factors both within and outside an organism can influence learning. Probably every part of the nervous system is “plastic”, i.e., learns.
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Module 6.1 Behaviorism Learning received a great deal of attention in the 20th century. Behaviorists led the way, and significantly advanced our knowledge of learning.
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Behaviorism Behaviorists are psychologists who insist that psychologists should study only observable, measurable behaviors . What behaviorists said should NOT be studied: mental processes (cognition; motivation; emotion) the brain
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Behaviorism Behaviorists study only events that they can measure and observe. Methodological behaviorists do use observations to make inferences about internal events.
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Behaviorism For example, from observing how an animal behaves in the presence of certain stimuli, a methodological behaviorist will infer the presence of an intervening variable .
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Behaviorism If a monkey shows its teeth in response to a larger monkey placed in its cage, the methodological behaviorist will infer the presence of the intervening variable fear .
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Behaviorism Radical behaviorism To radical behaviorists: internal states are caused by: events in the environment, or by genetics, which received little attention. the ultimate cause of behavior is therefore the observable events , NOT the internal states. most discussions of mental states are sloppy and should be rephrased into a description of behavior.
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Behaviorism The Rise of Behaviorism Recall: in the early 1900’s, the structuralists used introspection as a technique to study psychology.
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Behaviorism The Rise of Behaviorism Behaviorists believed that it was useless to ask people to describe their private experiences. There was no way to check the accuracy of these reports, and hard to define what “private experiences” mean.
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Behaviorism The Rise of Behaviorism Behaviorists argued that all animal behavior, and most human behavior, could be explained with stimulus- response psychology. Stimulus-response psychology attempts to explain behavior in terms of how each stimulus triggers a response. Shading one’s eyes from a strong light is an example of a stimulus-response behavior.
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Behaviorism The Rise of Behaviorism Modern behaviorists believe that behavior is the product of a history of stimuli and responses, plus the effects of natural physiological states (hunger, tiredness, etc.)
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Behaviorism The Rise of Behaviorism Early behaviorists believed that it might be possible to determine the basic laws of learning by studying how animals learn.
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The Assumptions of Behaviorism Behaviorists are determinists They assume that we live in a universe of identifiable cause-and-effect. Our behavior must have identifiable causes. If we know enough about the individual’s past
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chapter06 - Chapter 6 LEARNING Learning q Learning is...

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