chapter07 - Chapter 7 Memory Memory q Memory is not just an...

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Chapter 7 Memory
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Memory Memory is not just an intellectually interesting process. Remembering is a vital function of the brain. Without memory, complex organisms such as ourselves could not survive. Without memory, you would have no identity--no knowledge of who you are.
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Memory Memory is a general term for the storage, retention and recall of events, information and procedures.
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Ebbinghaus’s Pioneering Studies of Memory Hermann Ebbinghaus studied his own ability to memorize new material. Over 6 years, he memorized thousands of lists of nonsense syllables . Generally he found that delay between memorization and recall resulted in the forgetting a portion of the material.
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Ebbinghaus’ scientific study of memorizing nonsense syllables.
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Ebbinghaus’s Pioneering Studies of Memory Role of Interference For Ebbinghaus, the delay interval caused forgetting of abnormally large amounts of information. Was Ebbinghaus’ memory worse than others’? Answer: No. He had discovered an important principle of memory: Interference .
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Ebbinghaus’s Pioneering Studies of Memory Role of Interference After learning several sets of related materials: the retention of the old material makes it harder to retain new material ( Proactive interference) the learning of new materials makes it harder to retain the old material. ( Retroactive interference) Problem for Ebbinghaus: he had memorized so many lists of nonsense syllables that he experienced a strong effect form of proactive interference.
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Meaningfulness Ebbinghaus memorized nonsense syllables. But meaningful materials are easier to remember (e.g., list of US presidents). the more you know about a topic the more interested you are in it the easier it is to remember new information about the topic.
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Distinctiveness Distinctive or unusual information is easier to retain (e.g., remembering an event under unusual circumstances, such as being on a trip).
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Improving Our Memory Later we will describe some mental operations that improve memory. But is there some easy way to improve memory?
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Dependence of Memory on the Method of Testing How well we recall something depends in part on how we are tested after learning. There are 4 main types of memory test. We will describe them in order of increasing ability to demonstrate that a memory exists.
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Dependence of Memory on the Method of Testing Recall (or free recall) is the most difficult for the person being tested. To recall something is to produce it, as is done on essay and short-answer tests. Cued recall gives the person being tested significant hints (cues) about the correct answer . A fill-in-the-blank test uses this method.
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The Difference Between Recall and Cued Recall ?
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The Difference Between Recall and Cued Recall
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Dependence of Memory on the Method of Testing Recognition requires the person being tested to identify the correct item from a list of choices. Example:
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Michaelleyton during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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chapter07 - Chapter 7 Memory Memory q Memory is not just an...

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