chapter10 - Chapter 10 Consciousness States of...

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Chapter 10 Consciousness
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States of Consciousness Consciousness is not necessarily a state that is fully distinct from unconsciousness. There are varying degrees of consciousness. It is a fascinating topic to contemplate and discuss. It is a difficult topic to investigate. “Its meaning we know as long as no one asks us to define it. – William James
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Consciousness Instruction: Read the word that flashes
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Instruction: Read the word that flashes
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p. 363
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Fig. 10-1, p. 364
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p. 365
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p. 365
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p. 365
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Fig. 10-2, p. 366
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Fig. 10-3, p. 366
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Fig. 10-4, p. 368
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Fig. 10-5a, p. 369
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Fig. 10-5b, p. 369
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Sleep and Dreams
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Circadian Rhythms Circadian rhythms are cycles of activity and inactivity generally lasting about one day (from the Latin circa = about ” and dies = “ day ”.) Most people’s circadian rhythms, when allowed to occur in an environment free of familiar time cues (like living in a cave for several months) stabilize at a little over 24 hours. Your degree of alertness depends where you are in your circadian rhythm.
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Circadian Rhythms Shifting sleep schedules Mechanisms in the brain rely on light to reset your body’s clock and keep it in step with the environment. If you travel between time zones, the light in your new location will eventually reset your clock, but you will be out of step for a while. Jet lag is the period of weariness and discomfort that occurs while your body clock is out of step with your new time zone. It is easier to adjust going east to west than west to east.
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People traveling east suffer more serious jet lag than people traveling west.
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The graveyard shift is aptly named—serious industrial accidents usually occur at night. But few people want to work permanently at night, so workers rotate among three shifts. As in jet lag, the direction of change is critical. Moving forward— clockwise —is easier than going backward. Principle: It is easier for the brain’s circadian rhythm (“clock”) to be re-set by external timers (daylight or alarm clocks) when the new timer occurs later (clockwise).
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Circadian Rhythms Shifting sleep schedules Transferring rotating shift workers to later shifts has been found to be less stressful and harmful than transferring them to earlier shifts. Providing bright lights on the night shift can also ameliorate some of the harmful effects of being awake when the body clock is set for sleep.
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Circadian Rhythms Brain Mechanisms The circadian cycle of sleep and wakeful states is governed by the suprachiasmic nucleus (“SCN”.) This tiny structure at the base of the brain is essentially your body’s “clock.” The SCN controls the sleep-wake cycle in part by regulating the secretion of the hormone melatonin by the pineal gland .
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The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a small area of the hypothalamus, produces the circadian rhythm. Cells in the suprachiasmatic nucleus generate approximately a 24-hour rhythm of activity on their own, even if they are
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Michaelleyton during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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chapter10 - Chapter 10 Consciousness States of...

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