chapter14 - Chapter 14 Personality Personality In...

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Chapter 14 Personality
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Personality In psychology, personality is defined as the consistent ways in which one person’s behavior differs from others, especially in social contexts.
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Personality Personality is an elusive concept, far from understood, yet one of the most important. Some psychologists have developed “grand theories” of personality. Others have tried to identify personality types and describe why an individual classified as a certain “personality type” behaves in certain ways.
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Personality Theories
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Philosophers Hobbes and Rousseau held opposing views of human nature. Psychologists Freud and Rogers also held conflicting views. Freud, like Hobbes, stressed the more negative aspects of human nature; Rogers, like Rousseau, the more positive aspects.
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Personality Psychologists believe that personality is influenced by neurotransmitters and hormones – but is also shaped by genes and experience. But there is disagreement regarding the fundamental organization of personality.
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Personality Freud and the Psychodynamic Approach Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, developed the first psychodynamic theory of personality. Psychodynamic theory relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces (both conscious and unconscious) within the individual.
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Personality Freud and the Psychodynamic Approach Freud’s theory had an enormous impact on society during the 20th century. His theory is very difficult to test empirically. Although experimental psychologists find little use in the Freudian paradigm, his teachings are still utilized by mental health practitioners. Video on multimedia mgr. D:\media\video_clips\Freud.mov
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Personality Freud and the Psychodynamic Approach Freud’s Search for the Unconscious He was influenced by the psychiatrist Josef Breuer, who encouraged patients to recall and discuss the details of traumatic early life experiences in order to relieve the physical complaints that were apparently a manifestation of the unreleased emotions associated with these events.
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Personality Freud and the Psychodynamic Approach Freud’s Search for the Unconscious Breuer and Freud referred to this process as catharsis , the therapeutic release of pent-up emotional tension. Freud later expanded this “talking cure” into an explanation of personality, based on the interplay of conscious and unconscious internal forces, and called it psychoanalysis .
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Freud and the Psychodynamic Approach The unconscious mind contains memories, emotions, thoughts, some of which are illogical or socially unacceptable. These thoughts and feelings can generate anxiety and influence our behavior although we may not even be aware of them. Keeping these thoughts in the unconscious
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Michaelleyton during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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chapter14 - Chapter 14 Personality Personality In...

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