Lecture 21 - Pregnancy _ Lactation

Lecture 21 - Pregnancy _ Lactation - Lecture 21 Pregnancy...

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Lecture 21: Pregnancy and Lactation Recommended Readings: From Thompson et al, The Science of  Nutrition, parts of Chapter 17.
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Desired outcome of pregnancy and early post-partum years Healthy mother and infant Birth of full term (40 weeks) healthy infant Baby birth weight of 6.5 to 9 lbs Normal psychological and physiological  development milestones for infant Mother’s body weight and physical activity  return to pre-pregnancy levels 2
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Lecture Outline Nutrition before conception associated with poor nutrition Lactation and breastfeeding  Summary 3
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Nutrition Before Conception Why is this important? Some deficiency  related problems develop very early in  pregnancy Eg. Neural tube defects: Related to inadequate level of folate Effects the embryo in the first few weeks Adequate folate (400 µg daily) before  conception can reduce the risks 4
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For the WOMAN a healthful diet before conception includes Consuming adequate intakes of all  important nutrients Having a healthy pre-conception body  weight Avoiding  teratogens : substances that  cause birth defects Includes alcohol and illegal drugs Avoiding other possible hazards Smoking, caffeine, medications, some herbs and  5
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Before Conception A healthful diet and appropriate levels of  physical activity before conception Promotes optimal body weight gains for both  mother and developing fetus Reduces the risk of developing nutrition- related disorders during pregnancy, such as  gestational diabetes  and  preeclampsia 6
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The MAN’s nutrition before conception is also important Sperm number and motility (ability to move)  are reduced by alcohol consumption, certain  prescription, and illegal drugs Adequate nutrition keeps the immune system  strong and promotes fertility  7
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Lecture Outline Nutrition before conception associated with poor nutrition Lactation and breastfeeding Summary 8
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9
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0-13 wks 1 st  trimester  14-27 wks 2 nd  trimester  27-40 wks 3 rd  trimester  38-42 wk Gestation is “normal” 10
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First Trimester of Pregnancy  Zygote  (fertilized egg) travels through the  fallopian tube and implants in the wall of the  uterus  Embryo develops organs, limb buds, facial  features, placenta  Embryos are extremely vulnerable to  teratogens during this time 11
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2 nd Trimester of Pregnancy   Continued development of organ systems  Growth from ~ 3 inches to over a foot long  by the end of the 2nd trimester 12
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3 rd Trimester of Pregnancy   Time of intense growth and maturation  Fetus gains ¾ of it’s weight in this time  Brain growth is also extensive  Lungs become fully mature  A balanced, adequate diet for the mother  continues to be critical 13
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Lecture 21 - Pregnancy _ Lactation - Lecture 21 Pregnancy...

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